Crime is a term that refers to misconduct forbidden by law. Murder – also called homicide – is a crime in all countries. Other crimes include: stealing a car, resisting arrest, possessing or selling illegal drugs, appearing nude on a public street, driving while under the influence of alcohol, and robbing a bank.
The list of acts considered crimes is constantly changing. Today, it is becoming a serious crime to pollute the air and water. Pollution caused few problems and received little attention in preindustrial times.
From a legal standpoint, a crime is a violation of the criminal law. Such law deals with actions considered harmful to society. On the other hand, most harmful acts causing injury to another person are violations of the civil law. Some overlapping occurs in this classification. For example, murder and rape are committed against individuals, but the law considers them crimes because they threaten society. For this reason, a crime is regarded as an offence against the state.
An act is viewed as a crime if enough evidence exists to make a police officer, a prosecutor, or a judge believe that a violation of criminal law has taken place.
Упр.IПерепишите следующие предложения, раскрывая скобки. Переведите предложения письменно.
1. Many organizations … (have been started / have started) the campaigns against smoking.
2. Crime prevention programs … (have launched / have been launched) by the law enforcement bodies this year.
3. By the end of this year smoking … (will have prohibited / will have been prohibited) in all offices and institutions.
4. He registered his handgun as soon as he … (had bought / had been bought) it.
5. The program ‘neighborhood watch’ … (will have been begun / will have begun) by the beginning of the next month.
6. Public … (has supported / has been supported) the program of crime prevention.
7. The sentence … (has been limited / has limited) to imposing a fine of 3,000 pounds.
8. As there … (had been collected / had collected) enough evidence, the court sent the accused for trial by jury.
Упр.IIЗаполните пропуски правильной видо-временной формой глагола. Перепишите и переведите предложения.
1. The sentence … just 1. will have passed
2. The sentence … by next Friday. 2. has been passed
3. The judge … the sentence of 2-year 3. had been passed
4. The sentence … when we came. 4. has passed
5. The court … the judgement on
Probation by last Thursday. 5. had passed
6. The court … the sentence by next
6. will have been passed
Упр.IIIПерепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола – сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) Thousands of frauds are committed every year.
2) This grammar rule is being discussed at the lesson today.
3) The case has been investigated successfully.
4) Different kinds of offences were reflected in Crime Statistics
5) A great part of work is devoted to finding missing or wanted persons.
6) The guilt of the suspect has been proved by the investigating officers.
7) A number of measures to strengthen the criminal justice system were being taken by the Government for a few years.
8) The Common Law offences had been codified by 1986.
Упр. IVСоставьте предложения по модели и переведите их
Model 1: I had to work very hard last week.
To stay after classes on Monday, to translate the text in writing, to
read up for the seminar in the library
Model 2: I am to come at the examination at 10 a.m.
To take five tests and four exams in January, to visit grandparents
next week end, to get up early on Sunday
Model 3: You should be more attentive in class.
To use a dictionary when reading a new text, to pay more attention to
studies, to attend all lectures and tutorials
Упр. V.Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have.
1) The preliminary survey is to acquaint the investigating officer with the entire scene and its important details.
2) She will have to come home earlier.
3) The value of physical evidence is based on the law of probabilities
Упр.VIПереведите текст письменно
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