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A Hobby Makes Your Life Much More Interesting



Our life would be hard without rest and recreation. People have quite different ideas of how to spend their free time. For some of them the only way to relax is watching TV or drinking beer. But other people use their spare time getting maximum benefit from it. If you enjoy doing some activity in your free time, than you have a hobby. A person's hobbies are not connected with his profession, but they are practiced for fun and enjoyment. A hobby gives one the opportunity of acquiring substantial skill, knowledge and experience. A hobby is a kind of self-expression and the way to understand other people and the whole world. A person's hobbies depend on his age, intelligence level, character and personal interests. What is interesting to one person can be trivial or boring to another. That's why some people prefer reading, cooking, knitting, collecting, playing a musical instrument, painting, photography, fishing or playing computer games while others prefer dancing, travelling, camping or sports.

Collecting things is a very popular hobby and it may deal with almost any subject. Some people collect stamps, coins, badges, books, clocks or toys. Other people collect beer cans, key rings, stones, matchboxes, thimbles and all sorts of things. Once you've got a small collection you keep adding to it. Some people don't even remember how their collection started but now their house is crammed full of different knick-knacks which they can't use but keep for the sake of having them. But some people collect valuable and rare things as they consider it to be a good investment of their money.

If you are active and tired of town life, if you long for changes and want to get away from civilization, than camping is for you. It is a cheap way to rest, to improve your health, to train yourself physically and to enjoy nature. Some people prefer more extreme camping when they have to survive out-of-doors, orient themselves, obtain food from the wild, build shelters and adapt themselves to extremely cold weather. They learn to overcome any obstacles and become strong and self-reliant.

Ecotourism is becoming popular and fashionable all over the world, especially with people who try to damage the environment as little as possible. Tourists visit places of natural beauty and they usually travel on foot, by bicycle or boat so that there is no pollution. They stay in local houses or hotels and eat local food. Their aim is to enjoy nature, to experience the local culture and to get unforgettable impressions without polluting and wasting or destroying natural resources. They must keep places that they visit clean and safe. The principles of eco-tourism are 'Leave nothing behind you except footprints and take nothing away except photographs' and 'Take as much care of the places that you visit as you take of your own home'. If people remember these simple rules, we will be able to save our planet and to conserve the wildlife.

A hobby plays a very important educational, simulational and psychological role, makes you stronger physically and mentally, helps you escape from reality, improve your knowledge, broaden your mind, develop your skills and gain a better understanding of how the world works.

Задание 1. Закончите предложения (A— H) одним из следующих предложений (1—8):
A. If you enjoy doing some activity in your free time, than
B. A hobby gives one the opportunity of
C. A person's hobbies depend on his
D. What is interesting to one person
E. Some people collect valuable and rare things as they consider it
F. Camping is a cheap way
G. Ecotourism is popular with people who
H. A hobby plays a very important

 

1. age, intelligence level, character and personal interests.
2. educational, simulational and psychological role.
3. acquiring substantial skill, knowledge and experience.
4. try to damage the environment as little as possible.
5. you have a hobby.
6. can be trivial or boring to another.
7. to rest, to improve your health, to train yourself physically and to enjoy nature.
8. to be a good investment of their money.

Задание 2. Дайте определения следующих слов.
• recreation • self-reliance
• self-expression • pollution
• knick-knack • simulation

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы:
1) How does a hobby influence a person's life?
2) What kinds of hobbies do you know?
3) Why do people collect different things?
4) What is your attitude to extreme camping?
5) Why is ecotourism fashionable today?
6) What are the principles of eco-tourism?
7) Why is it important to everybody to have a hobby?
8) How do you spend your spare time?

 

Задание 4. Прочитайте мнения людей об увлечениях и заполните таблицу, приведенную ниже.

Kate, 43, bank manager
I can say that my hobby is dog training. I have a dog Jerry and we are best friends. Jerry follows all my commands and performs some simple tricks. We understand each other perfectly. I spend 2-3 hours a day training Jerry and it takes me a lot of effort but it's so much fun! Dogs are very devoted and understanding creatures and it is a great pleasure and entertainment to communicate with them. When Jerry is disobedient I never punish him but ignore his bad behaviour. And I often give him sweets and cookies as a reward.

Adam, 72, pensioner
I started collecting milk-jugs 12 years ago. At first my collection was small but today I have more than 200 items in it. I like drinking tea with milk and I have all sorts of milk-jugs in my collection. Most of them are attractively displayed on the shelves in my living-room. My relatives and friends know about my passion and they often add to my collection. My granddaughter often travels abroad on business and for pleasure and she always presents milk-jugs to me. I also collect antique clocks and icons, but my collection is still very small.

Daniel, 63, cook
My favourite pastime is amateur astronomy. When a school boy I liked physics and astronomy and dreamt of becoming astronaut. Observing and studying celestial objects is very interesting and romantic. Viewing the night sky you can see stars, the Moon, planets, comets and meteor showers. Of course you won't see much looking at the sky with the naked eye, that's why I use optical telescopes. I often keep records of my observations and share useful information with other amateur astronomers. Now my dream is to discover a new comet and to make some useful contribution to astronomy.

Simon, 25, messenger
Parkour teaches you to move quickly and efficiently and to overcome obstacles such as concrete walls, high fences or rocks. It has no set of rules or competitiveness. Parkour helps me develop my body and mind and gives me much energy. I learn to trust myself and to be strong. Parkour teaches me to overcome everyday difficulties and to approach problems differently. My friends and I practice in parks and abandoned structures. We try to avoid injuries but of course everything happens. You need no particular equipment: just a T-shirt, light trousers and comfortable athletic shoes. I think parkour has changed my life and my attitude to everything.

 

HOBBY FOR AGAINST
Dog training    
Collecting    
Amateur astronomy    
Parkour    

 

Задание 5. Прочитайте цитаты, выберите и прокомментируйте одну из них.
• 'Life's a hobby.' (Joshua Lederberg)
• A hobby a day keeps the doldrums away.' (Phyllis McGinley)
• 'Making money is a hobby that will complement any other hobbies you have, beautifully.' (Scott Alexander)
• 'People are spending more on their hobbies to make their free time more enjoyable.' (Steve Wagner)
Make the most of today. Get interested in something. Shake yourself awake. Develop a hobby. Let the winds of enthusiasm sweep through you. Live today with gusto.' (Dale Carnegie)

Домашнее задание:подготовить сообщение на одну из тем:

1. My hobby.
2. As many people as many hobbies.
3. Strange hobbies.

Практическое занятие № 20

Тема: «Проблемы свободного времени»

Цель: Активизация ЛЕ в устной речи

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

MY SPARE TIME

Nowadays everybody knows that people are very busy and don’t have much time to spare. Sometimes it’s only the weekend and I think that every day-off needs some special planning. The English say: "Who knows how to work, knows how to rest". I think it’s true. In my view rest is as important as work. So I try to treasure every hour and think of the ways of having a good time in the best way possible for me.

I prefer to spend my free time with the people whose company I always enjoy. I also like to spend my spare time alone, when I’m tired and haven’t got any desire to talk to anybody, very often I want to get away from noisy streets and go to the countryside and change the scenery. On the other hand I may go to different entertainment centers such as disco clubs, art centers including cinema, theatre, concerts halls, etc.

There are people who want to broaden and enrich their knowledge during their free time. I’m among them; I go to the library or reading-hall where I can find a lot of books written by my favorite writers and poets. I must add that I never have enough time to enjoy reading and more often read a book or a magazine late in the evening. Or I can go to the museums and picture galleries where I can see the works of well-known painters and sculptors of all times. I don’t forget the computer – my greatest helper in searching for knowledge.

If you want to be strong and healthy, go in for sports. There are many sports clubs, swimming-pools, gymnasiums and sport grounds for everybody who loves sports. Sport will make you not only healthier and stronger, but kinder, more sociable, cheerful and even wiser. Sport will give you its strength and energy and you’ll become a greater admirer of life with all its problems and wonders.

Moreover, there are a lot of people, who prefer less energetic activities, such as chess, cards, crosswords. And don’t forget about hobbies. You should have at least one, it’ll help you to relax, dream and enjoy life. There are so many hobbies to choose: painting, computer programming, photography, fishing, gardening, cooking, walking, learning languages, collecting something and what not. It’s a pleasure to see lots of things made with your own hands, to look through a large collection of old and rare coins, books or stamps, to present your friends with the pictures and drawings created by yourself, to amuse everyone with your green winter garden at home. So, look around more carefully and you’ll find your own and the only one (or even more). Hobbies give people moments of pride and excitement but take a lot of time, energy and even money.
Tastes differ and if you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste you are lucky.

Travelling is also a good way to spend my spare time. Visiting new places, seeing sights and meeting new people is a very exciting and useful relaxation. I can go hiking. In summer I like to be outdoors from morning till night, sunbathing, walking barefoot on the grass. My family or my friends are the very people to go with to the riverbank, to the forest or to the seashore. It's really wonderful to put up a tent, make a fire and spend time in a picturesque place.
People are dreamers, our dreams are different but each person chooses his own way of spending free time, either passive or active. In any case leisure should be refreshment and a source of inspiration.

Vocabulary:


to treasure – ценить

pride - гордость

desire – желание

drawing - рисунок

entertainment – развлечение

to create – создавать

knowledge – знания

taste - вкус

stamp –марка

inspiration - вдохновение


 

Задание 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:


сменить обстановку

с другой стороны

расширять знания

заниматься спортом

наслаждаться жизнью

изучать языки

коллекционировать что-либо

созданные своими руками

удивить кого-либо чем-либо

отнимать время

источник вдохновения


 

Задание 2. Подберите к словам из первой колонки подходящие по смыслу слова из второй.

1) to spare a) выбирать

2) to treasure b) экономить, беречь

3) to enjoy c) забывать

4) to forget d) просматривать

5) to look through e) наслаждаться

6) to choose f) ценить

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1) How can you broaden and enrich your knowledge during your free time?

2) Do you like to spend your spare time alone?

3) Why do people go in for sports?

4) Do you like sports?

5) Can you make things with your own hands?

6) Do you have any hobby?

7) Do you enjoy travelling?

 

Домашнее задание:написать рассказ о своем хобби.

Практическое занятие № 21

Тема: «Проблемы молодежи в современном мире»

Цель: Введение и активизация ЛЕ

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

Problems of Youth

Life used to be fun for 'teenagers'. They used to have money to spend, and free time to spend it in. They used to wear teenage clothes, and meet in teenage coffee bars and discos. Some of them still do. But for many young people, life is harder now. Jobs are difficult to find. There's not so much money around. Things are more expensive, and it's hard to find a place to live.

Teachers say that students work harder than they used to. They are less interested in politics, and more interested in passing exams. They know that good exam results may get them better jobs.

Most young people worry more about money than their parents did twenty years ago. They try to spend less and save more. They want to be able to get homes of their own one day.

For some, the answer to unemployment is to leave home and look for work in one of Britain's big cities. Every day hundreds of young people arrive in London from other parts of Britain, looking for jobs. Some find work, and stay. Others don't find it, and go home again, or join the many unemployed in London. There used to be one kind of teenage fashion, one style, one top pop group. Then, the girls all wore mini-skirts and everyone danced to the music of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones.

But now an eighteen-year-old might be a punk, with green hair and chains round his legs, or a skin head, with short, short hair and right wing politics, or a 'rasta', with long uncombed hair and a love for Africa. There's a lot of different music around too. There's reggae, the West Indian sound, there's rock, there's heavy metal, country and western, and disco. All these kinds of music are played by different groups and listened to by different fans.

When you read the newspapers and watch the news on television, it's easy to get the idea that British young people are all unemployed, angry and in trouble. But that's not true. Three quarters of them do more or less what their parents did. They do their best at school, find some kind of work in the end, and get married in their early twenties. They get on well with their parents, and enjoy family life. They eat fish and chips, watch football on TV, go to the pub, and like reading about pop stars. After all, if they didn't, they wouldn't be British, would they?
Vocabulary:

used to — раньше, бывало (+ infinitive to talk about things that happened regularly in past, but have changed now)
teenager — подросток, юноша
to worry — беспокоить(ся), волновать(ся)
unemployment — безработица
chain — цепь, цепочка
rasta от rastafari — растафари (название секты ямайских негров, происходит от докоронационного титула императора Эфиопии Хайле Селессие I (настоящее имя Тафари Маконнен) «рас Тафари», т. е. «принц Тафари», которого они считают воплощением бога)
do one's best — сделать все от себя зависящее, проявить максимум энергии
get on well with — ладить (с кем-л.)


Задание 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:


безработица

в поисках работы

находиться в опасности

тратить время и деньги

сдавать экзамены

подростковая

 

Задание 2. Закончите предложения.

1) Most young people worry more about money a) and enjoy family life.

2) They know that good exam results b) what their parents did.

3) Things are more expensive, and it's hard c) to find a place to live.

4) They get on well with their parents d) may get them better jobs.

5) Three quarters of them do more or less e) than their parents did twenty years ago.

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What is the difference between the life of today's teenagers and their parents when they were in their teens?
2. What do teachers say about today's students?
3. What problems do teens have today? Is it difficult to solve them?

 


4. What are the trends of today's youth fashion in clothes, music, ways of life?
5. How does the mass media describe the young generation?
6. What is the author's attitude to the young people?


 

Домашнее задание:выучить ЛЕ

 

Практическое занятие № 22

Тема: «Молодежная культура».

Цель: Развитие навыков чтения с пониманием основного содержания текста

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

   

Young people have a particular relationship with the world. There are many groupings (subcultures) that have interests different from those of the mainstream culture. A particular cultural grouping is a way for young people to express their individuality.

By the mid-60s teenagers had begun to form distinct cultural groupings. Most young people in Britain follow some kind of youth culture: rockers, hackers, ravers, skinheads, hippies, Goths, punks, bakers, emos, neformals, visual kids, metalists, alternativists, modes, straight-ages, heppers, hip-hop, football hooligans, gamers, anarchists, green, netballs, new-ages, jappies, nudists, pudonks, religious subcultures, gravity records, etc. A subculture is a way of life. It isn’t a fan club, it’s a real life. It seems to them that the parents are always saying: No! That everything about them: their hair, their music, clothes, the way they talk, their dreams are considered bad by grown-ups. The young people are unsure of where they are going. Often young people do something not because they want to do it. They do things because everybody around does or because they think it’s impolite to refuse.

The inspiration to form a youth culture comes out of a combination of fashion, style and music. A subculture is a group with a distinct style and identity. Different subcultures have their own beliefs, values, fashions. Members of different subcultures may have something similar in their image, behavior etc.

Today the life of many young people in Russia as well as in other countries of the world is influenced by popular culture. The young follow certain stereotypes that are imposed on them through TV, movies, and music. In their lifestyle they try to imitate the images of their idols. Other young people are sports and music fans. They frequent stadiums and huge concert halls. They follow their idols in their tours and support them. Unfortunately they are intolerant to those who don't share their view. It's a specific aspect of the youth subculture that can't be ignored.

Vocabulary:


particular - определенный

relationship - отношения

distinct – ясный, отличный

grown-up - взрослый

to refuse - отказывать

inspiration - вдохновение

belief - вера, убеждение

value - ценность

fashion - мода

similar – подобный, похожий

behavior - поведение


Задание 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

выражать индивидуальность

навязывать кому-либо что-либо

быть нетерпимым к кому-либо

подражать кумирам

находиться под влиянием

быть неуверенным в чем-либо

Задание 2. Дайте краткую характеристику следующим субкультурам:


Rockers

hackers

ravers

skinheads

hippies

Goths

punks

bakers

emos

neformals

visual kids

metalists

alternativists

modes

straightedges

heppers

hip-hop

football hooligans

gamers

anarchists

green

netballs

new-ages

jappies

nudists

pudonks

religious subcultures

gravity records


Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) How do young people express their individuality?

2) What is a subculture?

3) What subcultures do you know?

4) What does the inspiration to form a youth culture come out of?

5) Is the life of many young people in Russia as well as in other countries of the world influenced by popular culture?

 

Домашнее задание:подготовитьсообщение

 

Практическое занятие № 23

Тема: «Театр и кино в нашей жизни».

Цель: Введение и активизация ЛЕ

 

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

Cinema

Cinema plays an important role in the life of any society. It is an available popular form of art. Lots of people find going to the cinema one of the best ways of spending their leisure time. The movie audience is predominantly a young one.

Due to numerous video facilities, cinema attendances have declined sharply. But there is no denying the fact that the cinema-going habit is still a strong one.

No matter how large the place you live in is (whether it's a big city or a small provincial town, or even a settlement) there's most likely to be a cinema there.

There are such genres of feature films as the western, the thriller, the musical, the drama and the comedy. The performance lasts for two or three hours and most cinemas have at least 4 performances a day. There is no doubt that a good cinema show is an excellent entertainment and quite cheap. Of late cinema screens in this country have been dominated by films produced in the USA. And this tendency is growing.

As for me, I'm fond of going to the cinema. It's a pity, I don't always have time for it. It's an open secret that we live in a very difficult time now. But people do need something amusing and pleasant, something to laugh at. That's why I give my preference to comedies. The last comedy, I saw, is «Crocodile Dandy». The film tells about amusing adventures of a young lovely woman — reporter and a strong and brave crocodile hunter. At first, their relations were not friendly. She even looked down on him and he in return neglected her. But after he rescued her out of some difficult situations, their relations became more friendly. A happy end is an essential feature of American films. The same is true of this comedy. The main characters fall in love with each other in the end of the film.

 


Vocabulary:
movie audience — киноаудитория, кинозрители
predominantly — по преимуществу, главным образом
video facilities — видео-салон
to emerge — появляться, возникать
a settlement — поселок
adventures — приключения
grown-ups — взрослые
not without pleasure — не без удовольствия
to include — включать
feature film — художественный фильм
genre — жанр
western — вестерн
thriller — триллер
performance — сеанс
entertainment — развлечение
cinema screens — киноэкран
amusing adventures — забавные приключения
woman-reporter — женщина-репортер
hunter — охотник
to look down on smb. — смотреть свысока, презирать кого-либо
to rescue smb. out of smth. — спасти кого-либо
an essential feature — важная черта

 


 

Задание 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

проводить свое свободное время

привычка ходить в кино

к сожалению
ни для кого не секрет, что...

отдавать предпочтение чему-либо

занимать ведущее место

любить что-либо

влюбиться

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How do lots of people find going to the cinema?
2. Who makes up the movie audience?
3. Why have cinema attendances declined sharply?
4. Is the cinema-going habit still a strong one?
5. What genres of feature films are there?
6. How many performances have many cinemas a day?
7. What films have cinema screens in this country been dominated by?
8. Are you fond of going to the cinema?
9. In what time do we live now?
10. What do you give your preference to?
11. What does the film you saw last tell?
12. What is an essential feature of American films?

 

Theatre

Theatre is a place where you can see a play staged. It is also one of entertainments. A theatre consists of two parts: the stage and the hall. They are separated by a curtain and the orchestra. Actors and actresses perform on the stage and public occupies the hall, the pit, the dress-circles, the boxes and the gallery. If we made up our mind to go to the theatre we should go to the box-office to buy tickets. Seats can be reserved beforehand.

The last performance I saw was the "Nut Cracker" by Tchaikovsky. How great it was! The main parts were performed by Vadim Pisarev and Inna Dorofeeva. Everyone knows that they are very talented dancers. But I also was impressed by a very young ballet-dancer who was performing the part of Masha girl. I think she deserves respect of the audience because she did her best and looked great for her young age. I had a great time that night.

But we are to admit that theatre is not popular now as it used to be. There are many people who prefer to seat comfortably before the TV and enjoy themselves without leaving their homes.

 

Vocabulary:

play — пьеса

entertainment — развлечение

pit — партер

dress-circle — бельэтаж

performance — спектакль, представление

to admit — признавать

 

Задание 3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

состоит из

быть разделенными чем-либо

принимать решение

билетная касса

заранее

быть впечатленным чем-либо

заслуживает уважения

 

Задание 4. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What are the parts a theatre consists of?

2. Where can people buy their tickets?

3. Where was the "Nut Cracker" performed?

4. Are theatres as popular now as they used to be?

5. Why don't people go to the theatre as often?

 

Домашнее задание:выучить ЛЕ, подготовить рассказ

Практическое занятие № 24

Тема: «Досуг молодежи. Причины появления субкультур. Субкультуры Британии».

Цель:Развитие навыков чтение с пониманием основного содержания текста

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

Subculture

Today the life of many young people in Russia as well as in other countries of the world is influenced by popular culture. The young follow certain stereotypes that are imposed on them through TV, movies, and music. In their lifestyle they try to imitate the images of their idols. Other young people are sports and music fans. They follow their idols in their tours and support them. Unfortunately they are intolerant to those who don't share their view. It's a specific aspect of the youth subculture that can't be ignored.

I think that subculture is the culture of those who are dissatisfied with their place in society. Different subcultures have their own beliefs, value systems, fashion, and favourite music. For example the subculture of Rastafairians was based on nostalgia for a lost world. They idealized Africa. Rastafairians were Afro-Caribbean immigrants in Britain. They began to wear distinctive clothes, camouflage jackets, large hats in the red, gold and green colours of Ethiopia and put their long, uncut hair in dreadlocks. They brought to us such types of music as ska, reggae and hip-hop. Many subcultures developed as a result of music fusion of black and white cultures.

There are other subcultures that are not connected with music, and have a specific ideology. For example skinheads, which wore heavy boots, jeans and braces and shave their hair or cut it very short. Skinheads dreamed about the revival of the traditional working class culture. Skinheads were identified with extreme right wing views. Among other subcultures are Hippies, Punks, Mods, Rockers, Ravers and many others. Generally they were young people with low self-respect, who did poorly at school. They opposed the traditional world in which they where settled as fiasco elements.

Subcultures are not that bad as they are thought to be. Teens want to show off. But at the same time a lot of teens think about changing the world to the best. Subcultures are for mostly for young and creative. Then, I am sure, teenagers become good citizens. Some who were punks became the main editors of famous newspapers. A subculture is a way of life. It is not a fan club, it is an attributive feature of a real life.


Задание 1. Дайте определение понятию «Субкультура»
Subculture is ….
1. a way of life.
2. a way for teenagers to express their individuality.
3. the total of the inherited (унаследованный) ideas, beliefs, values and knowledge.
4. any group within a larger complex culture which has interests that vary from those of the mainstream culture.
5. the total range of activities and ideas of a group of people with shared traditions, which are transmitted and reinforced by the members of the group.
6. a group with distinct styles, behaviors and interests.

Задание 2. Подберите описание к каждой субкультуре.

goth? mod? skinhead? raver? hacker? A He is a wizard of the computer community, he knows how his computer works. He can do things with it that seem “magical”. B He is one of a gang of white boys characterized by closely cropped hair, heavy boots, and braces and a nationalist and racist agenda.
C He is a person who leads a wild or uninhibited social life, especially attending “Rave” parties. D Elements of the lifestyle include music, clothes (often tailor-made), dancing and motor scooters.
E He is characterized by black clothes and deathly white make-up. F He is a member of a motorcycle gang.

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст, вставьте в пропуски, слова из колонки справа

I have never supposed that there are so many music styles and so many 1) _______ around us. I have only known something about 2) ____, they are the people who like to wear the 3) ______ black and lots of silver jewellery. It seems to me, that I begin to 4) ______ why this subculture is so 5) ______ among teenagers and young people. They start to analyze their 6) ___ and become 7) _________ with it. 1. culture
  1. gothical
  2. black
  3. misunderstand
  4. popularity
  5. live
  6. satisfy

Домашнее задание:Подготовить рассказ

Практическое занятие № 25

Тема: «Интернет, СМИ, влияние мультимедийных средств на образ жизни и трудовую деятельность современного человека».

Цель: Развитие навыков поискового чтения.

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте текст, выскажите свое мнение по данному вопросу.

There are different ways of getting information — mass media, books, travelling, visiting museums, meeting people. Which do you prefer?

 

To live in the modern world is impossible without expanding your knowledge in all spheres. There are several ways of communicating the world to individuals — mass media, books, travelling, museums, meeting eminent people. Of all the existing ways, there are two which are the easiest ones, that is mass media and travelling. One more reason why I prefer them is that they provide the fullest and the most reliable information in the fields you are interested in.

 

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

 

Mass media play an important role in our life. They are usually defined by encyclopaedias as any of the means of communication, such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, etc. that reach and influence a very large audience, at least as large as the whole population of a nation. The term was coined in 1920s with emerging of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. I believe mass media are so influential because they can be used for various purposes: popularisation, for business or social concerns (advertising, marketing, public relations, and political communication), education, entertainment, video and computer games, journalism, public service announcements. Media include radio and television, films, various types of discs or tapes used for music and computer, Internet, publishing on paper (books, magazines, and newspapers).

Mass media play a crucial role in forming public opinion. They do it in a number of ways: first, they communicate the world to individuals. Much of the news media is made up of newsgathering by large organizations. Just four main news agencies — AP, UPI, Reuters and Agence France Presse — claim together to provide 90 % of the total news output of the world's press, radio and television. Second, they reproduce modern society's self-image by forcing attention to certain issues. They build up public images of political figures. They are constantly presenting objects suggesting what individuals in the mass should think about, know about, have feelings about. Because some of the media produce material which often is good, impartial, and serious, they have respect and authority. If we look into the reasons why the mass media shape public opinion, we will see, first of all, that in practice the ethics of the press and television provides a vital support for the existing order. Second, many of the mass media in practice cater for the tastes of some social group. Shaping the public opinion inside this group, they create the audience which supports them financially by buying the newspaper or watching the TV channel.

But how much do the media influence the modern society? Early critiques suggested that the media destroys the individual's capacity to act autonomously. Later studies, however, suggest a more complex interaction between the media and society. People actively interpret and evaluate the media and the information it provides.

Vocabulary:


to be defined by – определяться чем-либо

a crucial role - значительная роль

public opinion – общественное мнение

output - выпуск

issue – вопрос, проблема

constantly - постоянно

impartial - беспристрастный

authority - власть

a vital – жизненно важный

complex interaction – сложное взаимодействие

provide - обеспечивать


 

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Which means of communication do you know?

2. When the term of mass media was coined?

3. Why are mass media so influential?

4. Mass media play an important role in our life. How and why do they shape public opinion?

 

Задание 2. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения.
1. Средства массовой информации — это средства коммуникации, такие как радио, телевидение, газеты, журналы, которые создают очень большую аудиторию.

2. Средства массовой информации так влиятельны, поскольку используются для популяризации в интересах бизнеса или общества, для образования, развлечения, объявлений и т. д.
3. Средства массовой информации играют ведущую роль в формировании общественного мнения, так как они, во-первых, доносят до людей информацию о мире, во-вторых, воспроизводят созданный современным обществом его собственный имидж, в-третьих, они потворствуют вкусам определенной социальной группы.

4. Четыре основные агентства новостей предоставляют 90 % общего объема новостей прессы, радио и телевидения в мире.

Задание 3. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. Mass media constantly force attention to certain issues, build up images of political figures and present various objects suggesting what people should think about them.
2. As some amount of the information they present is impartial and serious, they have respect and authority.
3. They create the audience which supports them financially.

Домашнее задание:выучить ЛЕ

Практическое занятие № 26

Тема: «Компьютер – за и против»

Цель: Развитие навыков устной речи

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:

Internet and Modern Life

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundreds of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundreds of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Not with-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 


Vocabulary:

network — сеть
to embrace — охватывать, окружать
user — юзер, пользователь
to design — задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive — выжить
nuclear war — ядерная война
to pollute — загрязнять
dangerous — опасный
path — путь, маршрут
available — доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
the net — интернет, сеть
packet switching — пакетное переключение
invention — изобретение
accurate — точный
to count — считать, сосчитать
approximately— приблизительно, примерно
to receive — получать
message — послание
to provide — снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable — надежный
alternative — альтернативный
provider — провайдер, поставщик
security — безопасность
router — маршрутизатор
to intercept — перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
to encode — кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack — взломать
huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate — передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий

 


Задание 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

общаться друг с другом

военный эксперимент

ядерная война

точное число пользователей

коммерческое использование

пункт назначения

громадная библиотека

Задание 2. Сопоставьте части предложения.

1. The Internet has already 2. The history of Internet began 3. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available 4. Most of the Internet host computers are 5. The most important problem a) in the United States of America. b) entered our ordinary life. c) is security. d) in the United States in 1969. e) from one computer to another.  

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?

Домашнее задание:выучить ЛЕ

Практическое занятие № 27

Тема: «Выдающиеся деятели культуры, науки, известные люди, внесшие вклад в развитие науки, промышленности, сервиса, близкой к выбранной профессии».

Цель:Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного текста

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания, приведенные ниже:





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