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Before You Read.  афедра Ђ—оциально-правовые и гуманитарные наукиї




‘илиал в г. «латоусте

 афедра Ђ—оциально-правовые и гуманитарные наукиї

 

 

Ў143.21-9

’162

 

√.Ў. ’акимова

 

јЌ√Ћ»…— »… я«џ . ќЅ–ј«ќ¬јЌ»≈.

 

”чебное пособие по развитию коммуникативных навыков

 

 

„ел€бинск

»здательство ё”р√”

Chapter I. EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

Unit 1. Schooling in Great Britain

Before You Read

I. Study the table to find out the stages of schooling in the United Kingdom.

Education in Britain

Class School Age
Reception class Nursery school, playgroup or kindergarten (optional)   3Ц4
Year 1 Infant school Primary school 5Ц6
Year 2 6Ц7
Year 3 Junior school 7Ц8
Year 4 8Ц9
Year 5 9Ц10
Year 6 10Ц11
Year 7   Secondary school 11Ц12
Year 8 12Ц13
Year 9 13Ц14
Year 10 14Ц15
Year 11 15Ц16
Year 12 Sixth form Secondary school or Sixth form college 16Ц17
Year 13 17Ц18
First year (fresher) second year third/final year   University or polytechnic 18Ц19
19Ц20
20Ц21
Postgraduate   University 21Ц22
22Ц23

II. Study the cultural notes on British secondary education:

nursery school Ц дошкольное учреждение (детский сад дл€ детей от 2 до 5 лет; государственный);

infant school Ц школа дл€ малышей дл€ детей от 5 до 7 лет (государственна€, существует самосто€тельно или в составе общей начальной школы);

junior school Ц начальна€ школа дл€ детей от 7 до 11 лет (государственна€, существует самосто€тельно или в составе общей начальной школы);

secondary modern school Ц современна€ школа (государствен≠на€ средн€€ школа, дающа€ неакадемическое образование с практическим уклоном; не дает права на поступление в университет);

technical school Ц техническа€ школа (средн€€ общеобразовательна€ шко≠ла, дающа€ образование с профессиональным (техническим уклоном) дл€ учащихс€ с 11 до 16 или 18 лет; дает право на поступление в университет);

grammar school Ц классическа€ школа (государ≠ственна€ или частна€ средн€€ школа дл€ учащихс€ с 11 до 18 лет, предо≠ставл€юща€ сильное классическое образование; дает право на по≠ступление в университет);

the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) Ц аттестат о среднем образовании нового об≠разца (введен с 1988 года) или выпускные экзамены, сдаваемые учащимис€ в возрасте 16 лет по окончании средней школы;

the General Certificate of Education at Advanced level (GCE УAФlevel) Цаттестат о среднем образовании продвинутого уровн€ или экзаме≠ны по программе средней школы повышенного уровн€ (дают право на поступление в университет);

comprehensive school Ц едина€ средн€€ школа (государственна€ школа дл€ детей с разными способност€ми, проживающих в одном райо≠не, и сочетающа€ в себе классический, технический и неакадемический типы среднего образовани€);

public school Ц паблик скул, привилегированна€ частна€ средн€€ школа (платна€ школа дл€ де≠тей от 11 или 13 до 18 лет; закрыта€; чаще школа-интернат; многие частные школы ¬еликобрита≠нии имеют многовековые традиции и готов€т своих выпускников к поступлению в лучшие университеты страны; часто €вл€ютс€ шко≠лами раздельного дл€ юношей и девушек образовани€; название Ђpublic schoolї (Ђобщественна€ школаї) восходит к тому времени, когда школы этого типа впервые стали принимать детей не только из близлежащих местностей);

independent school Ц независима€ школа (общее название дл€ школ, самосто€тельных в финансовом отношении, т.е. частных школ);

preparatory school (prep school) Ц приготовительна€ школа (частна€ школа дл€ детей от 7-8 до 13 лет; может входить в состав привилегированной частной средней школы (public school) или существовать отдельно);

the old school tie Цгалстук старой школы (обычно выпускников привилегированных частных средних школ);

the old-boy network Ц круг бывших одноклассников, узы старой дружбы (широко используютс€ выпускниками привилегированных частных средних школ дл€ взаимной поддержки и осуществлени€ общих интересов).

III. Scan the text and render it into Russian using the vocabulary given below and the cultural notes.

 

Education in Britain: Age five to sixteen

 

The overall approach to education in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland is broadly similar, but education is administered separately in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This passage refers mainly to state (non-private) education in England and Wales, although much will be true of education in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Before the age of 5 children may attend nursery schools, and in fact nearly one-half of three- and four-year-olds attend nursery school.

Education is compulsory for children from the age of five until the age of sixteen. This period of education aims to develop children for life and for work. Children develop language skills, numeracy, knowledge of science and a familiarity with technology. It also aims to develop children's minds and bodies through art classes, religious study and sport.

Ninety-three per cent of children receive free education at state schools, and the remainder attends non-state, private fee-paying schools (also known as УindependentФ and УpublicФ schools). They usually charge high fees. Private education can cost from £ 300 a term for nursery education to £ 4,000 a term for senior boarding pupils.

Within the state system parents can try to get their children to what they consider to be the best school in their region, but there is no guarantee that the chosen school will have free places. The average size of a class in Britain is 17 although classes are often much larger. Today in most schools boys and girls are taught together.

From the age of 5, when compulsory education begins, children usually attend an infantsТ school; at seven children transfer to a junior school until the age of 11. This stage of education is known as УprimaryФ education. At the age of eleven children usually transfer to a secondary school.

Until the 1960s and 1970s secondary education in Britain was selective. This meant that children were separated at the age of 11 on the basis of ability, with the Уbest'Ф pupils going on to grammar schools and the less able attending secondary modern schools. The grammar schools provided a traditional academic education and the secondary moderns a broader less academic education. Today there are few grammar and secondary modern schools left. In the 1960s and 1970s comprehensive schools were introduced. The comprehensive system was seen as fairer since pupils were not separated according to ability. Nearly ninety per cent of secondary schools in Britain are comprehensive schools and take children of all abilities.

Comprehensive schools can be organized in a number of ways. They include schools which take the full secondary age-range of 11 to 18; middle schools, whose pupils move to senior-comprehensive schools at 12, 13 or 14; and schools with an age-range of 11 to 16 combined with a sixth-form or a college for pupils over 16.

Until the age of 14 children have little choice which subjects to study. The government demands that schools teach nine subjects to children aged 5 to 14 (English, mathematics, science, technology, history, geography, music, art and physical education), and in addition demands that children study a foreign language at the age of 11. Children are assessed at the age of 7, 11, 14 and 16.

At 14 children begin to specialize, and the number of compulsory subjects is reduced from ten to seven. This gives children limited opportunity to stop studying certain subjects. This specialism enables pupils to prepare for the main school examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is taken at the age of 16. The average school candidate takes six or seven GCSEs, the most common subjects being English, history, geography, French, German, mathematics, chemistry, physics and biology. Pupils are awarded a grade in each subject on a seven-point scale, A to G. The GCSE result is based on a final examination, and on work done during the previous two years. The GCSE examinations are extremely important, and often determine whether children leave school to work or continue to study.

A further examination, normally taken two years after GCSE, is the A-level (УAФ meaning УAdvancedФ). This is usually done in two or three subjects only. The GCSE examinations are national examinations but GCE УAФ level exam≠inations are still set and marked by various examining boards appointed by uni≠versities or groups of universities. Schools can choose which board they like. Both GCSEs and УAФ levels can be taken in almost any subject. Three A-levels are enough to get school leavers into most universities. Which university accepts them depends on how good their УAФ level results are. For others, such as Oxford and Cambridge, you have to take special exams as well [1].

 





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