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THE LEGAL PROFESSION IN GREAT BRITAIN



The legal professionin England is divided into two main groups, barris­tersand solicitors.A popular definition of the distinction between solicitors and barristers is that barristers do the court workand solicitors do the office work.In practice, the major volume of court work is done by solicitors and barristers do much "office" work. At present no solicitor, however experi­enced, may represent a client at a full hearingin any of the higher courts. On the other hand, a barrister, however inexperienced, may represent clients in the House of Lords. . Since 1 October 2009 this role is now held by the newly created Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

Being a solicitor does not simply involve acquiring knowledge of the theory and practice of the law.It also requires high standards of conduct and an onerous obligation to the courts. The full title of a solicitor is "Solicitor of the Supreme Court". All solicitors are automatically officers of the court.They have duties to the courtwhich sometimes overridethe duties to their clients. For instance, solicitors must not knowingly allow their client to tell lies in the witnessbox. If a client confesses their guiltto a solicitor, the so­licitor would be committing an offenceif he or she then called the client to give evidencethat they were innocent.

Many barristers, especially junior barristers, spend much of their time on paperwork, giving opinions, drafting pleadingsand other documents related to court proceedings,but also drafting contracts, trust deedsand other formal legal documentswhich are not immediately connected with litigation.

A person seeking to qualify as a solicitorcan become a traineesolicitor after three years of university legal educationand one extra year doing the legal practicecourse. As a trainee solicitor it is possible to obtain a paid po­sitioneven before qualifying.

The young would-be barristerhas much less chance of earning anything before he qualifies, must then obtaina seat in chambersfrom which he can try to build up a practice,knowing that times will probably be hard for a few years. He has to meet his own expenses, cover his own holidays and buy his own (very expensive) sick-pay insurance.In return he gets the sat­isfaction of wearing a wig, and of being self-employed. Doubtless also, being a barrister still sounds a much more glamorous occupation than being a solicitor.

 

Notes:

legal profession– юридическая профессия

barrister– адвокат, выступающий в суде

solicitor– поверенный

to do the court work– выполнять работу в суде

to do the office work– выполнять работу в конторе

to represent a client at full hearing– представлять клиента на полном слушании

acquiring knowledge of the theory and practice– приобретение знаний по теории и практике

onerous– обременительный

officer of the court– судебный исполнитель

to have duties to the court– иметь обязательства перед судом

to override– превышать

witness box– место для дачи свидетельских показаний

to confess a guilt– признать вину

offence– правонарушение

to give evidence– давать свидетельские показания

innocent– невиновный

to draft– составлять проект

pleadings– состязательные бумаги, которыми обмениваются стороны на предварительной стадии судебного процесса

court proceedings– рассмотрение дела в суде

trust deed– акт учреждения доверительной собственности

legal documents – юридические документы

litigation –судебная тяжба

trainee –практикант

legal education (practice)– юридическое образование (практика)

сould-be barrister– стремящийся стать адвокатом

to obtain a seat in chambers– получить место в конторе

sick-payinsurance оплата по болезни

to build up a practice– приобрести клиентуру

 

I. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст, используя примечания после текста и методические рекомендации на стр. 4–10. Перепишите, письменно переведите и подготовьте контрольное чтение абзацев 1, 2, 3.

II. Из последнего абзаца выпишите все ing-формы, определите, чем они являются, и дайте перевод.

III. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Предварительно внимательно прочитайте определения следующих терминов.

legal, lawful, legitimate

Any action which is allowed by law is legal: It's legal for people over 18 to buy alcohol.

Legal also means "connected with the law": the legal profession.

Lawful means "existing according to law" and suggests that the law has moral or religious force: lawful marriage.

Legitimate means "accepted by law, custom or common belief ": the legitimate government

1. She is the................. owner of the property.

2. Is the procedure perfectly................ ?

3. The company intends to take.......... action.

4. The Crown Prince has a.................. claim to the throne.

5. The defendant applied for............. aid.

6. Schooling is a............... requirement for children over five years old in Britain and the USA.

7. He was attacked while going about his………… business.

 

IV.Соотнесите словосочетания и их английские эквиваленты

a) to carry a case b) to bring a case с) to drop a case d) to close a case e) to initiate a case f. to argue a case

1) возбудить дело в суде

2) проводить судебное дело

3) представить дело суду

4) прекратить дело

5) отказаться от иска,
обвинения

 

V. Образуйте существительные от данных ниже глаголов и переведите

их на русский язык.

To negotiate, to litigate, to engage, to oppose, to assess, to advise.

VI. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are the main types of legal profession in Great Britain?

2. What duties to the client and to the court do solicitors have?

3. What kind of paper work do barristers do?

4. What is the usual way for solicitors and barristers to build up a practice?

 

VII. Прочитайте текст и изложите его содержание кратко по-русски.

 





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