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Careful organisation builds a giant.




The charts listed every lorry due to arrive, what it would carry, who would be responsible for it and where it ought to go. Each beam was hoisted by crane to the appropriate floor, then transported to wherever it was required on a miniature railway system. This methodical approach worked exceptionally well and on occasions the building rose by more than a storey in a single day.

The Empire State 102 storeys were finished in record time. It took just six months to complete the 381 m building instead of the antici pated 18 months, feat that set new standards of efficiency for the construction industry. But it was 1931, in the early years of the Great Depression, and much of the space remained unlet. The building was dubbed “The Empire State Building”. It had cost $24 million to construct, which was cheap at the time, but for the first few years a major source of income used by the developer to pay property taxes was ticket sales for the observatories on the 86th and 102nd floors. From the top on a clear day, it is possible to see 80 km away.

A skyscraper made of steel.

The steel skeleton of the riveted structure means that it is immensely strong — the building sways less than 6 mm on the 85th floor in a strong wind. In July 1945 an off-course US Air Force bomber, travelling at a speed of 400 km/h in fog and rain, crashed into the 78th and 79th floors. The three man crew and 11 people in the building were killed, but the structure suffered no permanent damage. Survivors recall that the building simply rocked a couple of times.

Manhattan’s distinctive skyline started to take shape when steel began to be used for tall buildings. Earlier buildings had been made from a variety of materials, including stone, brick, wood and cast iron. But a masonry building taller than about ten storeys would have required supporting walls so thick at the base that there would be hardly any floor space on the ground floor and, before lifts were invented, building height was limited to the number of steps people were prepared to climb. One of Manhattan’s most striking early skyscrapers, built between 1901 and 1903 was Flatiron building. It owes its unique shape to the narrow triangular site it occupies at the junction of Broadway and 5th Avenue at 23rd Street.

Twenty storeys high, its riveted steel frame is clad in French Renaissance-style stonework.

Taller and taller.

The Flatiron may also have been the first building to create strange aerodynamic effects in the surrounding streets. Even today, Manhattan’s tall buildings create unusual wind currents, causing snowflakes to float upwards. Before long, the Flatiron was dwarfed by other skyscrapers, including the Woolworlh Building, completed in 1913. The architect, Cass Gilbert, chose the Gothic style for the 60-storey tower. The structure itself was made from steel and the exterior completely clad in terracotta. It could house 14000 workers, serviced by 19 lifts and 2800 telephones — an astonishing number for the time.

When the building was finished it won immediate praise from the public — but some architectural purists were aghast, their sensibilities offended by Gilbert’s use of Gothic detail purely for decorative effect, rather than for structural purposes. This was contrary to the modernist stricture that “form should follow function”.

Reader’s Digest: How Was It Done?

 

  MODAL VERBS

 

К модальным глаголам не добавляются окончания. За ними всегда стоит глагол без to. Модальные глаголы стоят на первом месте в вопросах и к ним добавляется not в отрицаниях. Обычно не изменяются по временам, употребляется только в настоящем и ближайшем будущем.

MUST употребляется только в настоящем и ближайшем будущем для выражения: необходимости, обязанности: You must stop when the traffic light is red. запрета: You mustn’t park here. настоятельной рекомендации: You must behave yourself at school. логического заключения: They must be the boy’s parents.

HAVE (GOT) TO употребляется для выражения вынужденной необходимости: I have to wear a uniform at work.

Вопросы отрицания формируются с помощью do, does или did.

NEEDN’T – нет необходимости что-то делать: The farmer needn’t/doesn’t need to buy any eggs.

DIDN’T NEED TO + infinitive – действие не было совершено, т.к. не было необходимости: They didn’t need to cut any more wood.

NEEDN’T HAVE + V3 – действие было совершено, но не было необходимости: You needn’t have bought me a gift.

CAN/COULD употребляется для выражения: физической возможности: He can fly an aeroplane. I could ski very well when I was young. просьбы о разрешении: ‘Can I go swimming?’ ‘No, you can’t.’ заказов: Can I get you anything from the supermarket? предложений: ‘What shall we do tonight?’ ‘We can go to the cinema.’ просьб: Can you help me with my French homework please? отрицательных логических заключений: They can’t be strangers. I’m certain I know them. возможностей: ‘John is late.’ ‘He could be stuck in traffic.’

Can – настоящее, could – прошлое, be able to – для всех остальных времен.

WAS/WERE ABLE TO – однократное действие в прошлом: He was able to climb to the top of the mountain.

Could – постоянная физическая возможность в прошлом: He could run very fast when he was young. Could употребляется с глаголами чувственно-визуального восприятия и в отрицаниях.

Can’t употребляется для выражения отрицательного логического заключения: They can’t be at work. She can’t be doing her homework. He can’t have done the exercise properly. The drivers can’t have been driving slowly.

Must употребляется для выражения логического заключения: They must be on holiday. She must be writing a letter. He must have strained his back. The drivers must have been driving too fast.

MAY/MIGHT употребляется для выражения: просьбы разрешения (когда мы плохо знаем собеседника): ‘May I ask you another question?’ ‘Of course.’ Просто просьбы: ‘May I have a pen & some papers, please?’ ‘Here you are.’ разрешения: Passengers may take only one item of hand luggage on board. Или отказа: Students may not wear outdoors shoes on the basketball court. возможности: Might + present inf.: ‘Where’s Aunt Julia?’ ‘She might still be at work.’ Might + perfect inf.: ‘The lights are still on.’ ‘Helen might have forgotten to turn them off.’ (возможно произошло) ‘Why did you run across the road?’ ‘You might have been killed.’ (могло случиться, но не случилось)

Для выражения разрешения: употребляется can и be allowed to чтобы выразить законы или правила: All citizens over the age of 18 can/are allowed to vote. употребляется could и was/were allowed to чтобы выразить разрешение на определенные действия в прошлом: I could/was allowed to go to parties when I was young. разница в употреблении may и be allowed to в вопросах: May I use your phone? (рядовая просьба) Are we allowed to use the office phone? (разрешается ли)

Ø was/were allowed to но не could употребляются для выражения разрешения на конкретное действие в прошлом: I was allowed to go to John’s party last night.

SHALL употребляется для выражения: предложения помощи: Shall I help you choose Mary’s present? предложения: Shall we go to the market today? просьбы о разрешении или совете: Where shall we go tonight?

Will/Would употребляется для выражения: просьбы: Will you hold the plate for me, please?

Should/Ought to употребляется для выражения: совета: You should/ought to be more careful. критики: You all should/ought to have tried harder.

 

Present Simple I’m sure he is Spanish. I’m sure you aren’t a doctor. He must be Spanish. You can’t be a doctor.
Present Continuous I’m certain they’re hiding. I’m sure they won’t be leaving tomorrow. They must be hiding. They can’t be leaving tomorrow.
Perfect I’m certain she has left. I’m sure she didn’t lie. I’m certain he hadn’t phoned. She must have left. She can’t have lied. He can’t have phoned.
Perfect Continuous I’m sure they were waiting. I’m certain she has been crying. I’m certain he hadn’t been trying hard. They must have been waiting. She must have been crying. He can’t have been trying hard.
Present Simple Perhaps she is a nurse. It’s possible he will come early. She might be a nurse. He might come early.
Present Continuous Perhaps they are having a break. It’s likely we will be moving house soon. They might be having a break. We might be moving house soon.
Perfect Perhaps he left yesterday. It`s possible she has locked the door. It`s likely he had gone out. He might have left yesterday. She might have locked the door. He might have gone out.
Perfect Continuous It`s possible they were sleeping. Perhaps it has been raining there. They might have been sleeping. It might have been raining there.

16.A Выбери подходящий вариант:

 


1. We needn’t/mustn’t/didn’t need to get up early this morning, so we slept until ten o’clock.

2. Would/Should/Ought you give me a lift to the office, please?

3. I can ride a bicycle, but I could/couldn’t/can’t drive a car yet.

4. Could/Must/Should I ask you a personal question, please?

5. You must/need/can write & thank Aleksey for your help.

6. You must/needn’t/could wear a coat. It is very warm outside.

7. I can’t come to the area tonight. I could/needn’t/have to work.

8. It’s late. Mark might/will/ought have forgotten about the meeting.

9. He would/can’t/must be at work. His car isn’t outside his house.

10. It was very dark, but he was able to/could/couldn’t find his way.


 

16.B Заполни пропуски:

 


1. You _ leave. I’m not busy right now.

2. They _ pay for the water. It was free.

3. The children are sleeping. They _ be making a noise.

4. Masha _ accomplish her objectives very fast when she was young.

5. After studying hard, Lisa _ pass the exam.

6. I _ go shopping, so I went home instead.

7. Finally, George _ reach the top of the career stairs.

8. I _ calibrate the weighing machine when I was young specialist, but I can’t do it now so successfully.

9. You were at work. You _ have watched the match.

10. Marina _ bring anything with her. I’ve got everything we may need.


16.C Заполни пропуски 2-5 словами, включая слово в скобках:

 


1. I advise you to go back to the university. (should) You _ back to the university.

2. It is possible that Zhenya had lunch early today. (could) Zhenya _ lunch early today.

3. You aren’t allowed to talk during the exam. (must) You _ during the exam.

4. Perhaps the students are in the auditorium. (may) The students _ in the auditorium.

5. It isn’t necessary for you to write the instructions down.

(have) You _ the instructions down.

6. Wearing jewellery to work is forbidden. (allowed) You _ jewellery to work.

7. I’m sure Michael has been promoted. (must) Michael _ promoted.

8. I advise you to equipped those rooms with air-conditioning. (ought) You _ those rooms with air-conditioning.

9. Perhaps she has gone on holiday. (may) She _ on holiday.

10. I’m sure he hasn’t forgotten your birthday. (can’t) He _ your birthday.


16.D Перефразируй предложения, используя модальные глаголы:

 


1. Perhaps she has got a new job.

2. I’m sure he isn’t a surveyor.

3. It is likely that they will find the job this month.

4. I’m certain she made this caission herself.

5. It’s possible he stabilized the ground under the foundation yesterday.

6. Perhaps we have embedded a beam in a foundation.

7. I’m sure they don’t drive a pile.

8. I’m certain she lives with her parents.

9. It is likely that I will be late for work tomorrow.

10. Perhaps he has gone to the civil engineer’s.

11. I’m sure we haven’t missed the bus.

12. It’s possible they have been invited to the party.


 

MODULE17 BUILDING THE WALLS

17.1 Сопоставь антонимы:

 

1. disconnection 2. disappearance A. solid B. bond
3. inappropriate 4. horizontal C. appearance D. split
5. exude 6. mismatch E. plumb F. durable
7. penetrable 8. fragile G. joint H. absorb
9. whole 10. untie I. proper J. fit

 

 

17.2 Замени выделеные слова на:

 


A. bond

B. evaporate

C. cavity wall

D. veneer

E. impart

F. split

G. rub

H. appearance

I. moisture

J. fit


 

1. Non-loadbearing brick facing was applied to a wall to give appearance of solid-brick construction. 2. The architect changed the look of the building from Mediterranean to a more typical Florida look. 3. The water in the reservoir can dry up in the hot summer. 4. Temporary partitions divide the space into three rooms. 5. These beams are suitable where loads are great or spans are large. 6. Bricklayers spread a bed of mortar with a trowel (a flat, bladed metal tool with a handle), place the brick on the mortar bed, and then press and tap the brick into place. 7. Almost all homes, apartments, and commercial buildings can experience leaks, flooding, or other forms of excessive indoor dampness at some point. 8. The invention provides a direct connection of the bricks to the wall supporting structure such that the support for the bricks is not dependent upon the non-structural backing board. 9. The shape of an arch gives it great strength. 10. The air space should be continuous throughout the hollow wall in order to obtain the full benefit of the space.

 

17.3 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст BRICKLAYING AND CONCRETE BLOCKS:

When a wall is built of bricks, the bricks are set in mortar. Mortar consists of a mixture of sand and either lime or Portland cement or, more often, a mixture of the two. Enough water is used in mixing the mortar to produce a paste in which the bricks can be firmly bedded. The bricks must be carefully arranged, or bonded as it is called, in the wall in order to produce a structure of good strength and appearance, the pattern of the brickwork depending on the bond which is used. The pointing or finishing of mortar joints is also given careful attention since it affects the appearance and the weather resistance of the wall.

Each layer of bricks is called a course and the bricklayer has to be very skillful to keep the courses exactly level and the thickness of mortar between each course of bricks the same throughout the length and depth of the wall. The corners of the walls must be absolutely upright.

Nowadays the outer walls of buildings often consist of an outer and inner wall with a space of about 5 centimetres between them, the two layers being held together at intervals by small metal ties. These cavity walls, as they are called, help moisture evaporate better than solid walls. A layer of insulating material is often put in the space between the walls to prevent heat escaping from the building. This is known as cavity wall insulation.

When bricks are built in curves, as in arches or curved walls, the bricklayer has to shape the bricks in order to fit them together. Sometimes quite soft bricks called rubbers are used; these can be rubbed on a hard stone in order to shape them so accurately that they can be built with thin mortar joints. Work of this type is known as gauged brickwork and demands great skill.

Blocks of cinder concrete, ordinary concrete, or hollow tile are genetically known as concrete masonry units. They are usually much larger than ordinary bricks and so are much faster to lay for a wall of a given size. Furthermore, cinder and concrete blocks typically have much lower water absorption rates than brick. They are often used as the structural core for veneered brick masonry, or are used alone for the walls of factories, garages and other industrial style buildings where such appearance is acceptable or desirable. Such blocks often receive a stucco surface for decoration. Surface- bonding cement, which contains synthetic fibers for reinforcement, is sometimes used in this application and can impart extra strength to a wall. Surface-bonding cement is often pre-coloured and can be stained or painted thus resulting in a finished stucco-like surface.

The primary structural advantage of concrete blocks in comparison to smaller clay-based bricks is that a concrete masonry unit wall can be reinforced by filling the block voids with concrete with or without steel rebar. Generally, certain voids are designated for filling and reinforcement, particularly at comers, wall-ends, and openings while other voids are left empty. This increases wall strength and stability more economically than filling and reinforcing all voids. Steel reinforcement can be embedded in horizontal mortar joints of concrete block walls. The introduction of steel reinforcement generally results in a concrete masonry unit wall having much greater lateral and tensile strength than unreinforced walls. Some concrete blocks are coloured, and some employ a split face, a technique that results in two blocks being manufactured as one unit and later split into two. This gives the blocks a rough face replicating the appearance of natural, quarried stone, such as brownstone. For applications such as roadway sound control walls, the face patterns may be complex and even artistic.

 

17.4 Опридели верны ли данные высказывания или нет:

1. The bricks must be carefully bonded in order to provide for the mixing of mortar.

2. Bricks have lower water absorption than concrete blocks.

3. Cavity walls do not prevent heat from escaping from the building.

4. The bricklayer has to be skilful to keep each layer of bricks horizontal.

5. Soft bricks or rubbers can be built with thin mortar joints after shaping them.

6. Concrete blocks are used for the walls of industrial buildings.

7. A stucco surface is a sort of decoration.

8. Surface-bonding cement does not make a wall stronger.

 

17.5 Прочитай, переведи текст MASONRY и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:

1. Extreme weather causes degradation of masonry wall surfaces due to frost damage. This type of damage is common with certain types of brick, though rare with concrete block. If non-concrete (clay-based) brick is to be used, care should be taken to select bricks suitable for the climate in question. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation (usually reinforced concrete) to avoid settling and cracking. If expansive soils (such as adobe clay) are present, this foundation needs to be quite elaborate and the services of a qualified structural engineer may be required, particularly in earthquake prone regions.

2. Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures. The use of materials such as brick and stone can increase the thermal mass of a building, giving increased comfort in the heat of summer and the cold of winter, and can be ideal for passive solar applications. Brick will not require painting and so can provide a structure with reduced life-cycle costs, although sealing appropriately will reduce potential spalling due to frost damage. Non-decorative concrete block generally is painted or stuccoed if exposed. The appearance, especially when well crafted, can impart an impression of solidity and permanence. Masonry is heat resistant and thus provides fire protection. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from hurricanes or tornadoes than walls of wood or other softer, less dense materials.

3. Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, and tile. Masonry is a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability of the overall masonry construction.

4. The strength of a masonry wall is not entirely dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the friction between the interlocking blocks of masonry is strong enough to provide a great deal of strength on its own. The blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, and some dry set masonry structures forego mortar altogether.

5. Masonry boasts an impressive compressive strength (vertical loads) but is much lower in tensile strength (twisting or stretching) unless reinforced. The tensile strength of masonry walls can be strengthened by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers (vertical columns or ribs) at intervals. Where practical, steel reinforcements can be added.

6. Solid brickwork is made of two or more layers of bricks with the units mnning horizontally (called stretcher bricks) bound together with bricks mnning transverse to the wall (called header bricks). Each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different bonds such as the common bond (with every sixth course composed of headers), the English bond, and the Flemish bond (with alternating stretcher and header bricks present on every course). There are no significant utilitarian differences between most bonds, but the appearance of the finished wall is affected. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond.

7. Solid masonry without steel reinforcement tends to have very limited applications in modem wall constmction. While such walls can be quite economical and suitable in some applications, susceptibility to earthquakes and collapse is a major issue. Solid unreinforced masonry walls tend to be low and thick as a consequence.

 

17.6 Ответь на вопросы:

1. It is necessary to examine factors which are likely to interfere with the experiment results.

2. Human needs have to be identified first and then converted to programs in the best possible way.

3. Sometimes the microcomputer system is to be used as a general purpose computer.

4. The computer has made it possible to mechanize much of the in­formation interchange and processing.

5. Architectures should provide adequate flexibility to support the growing trend to distributed systems.

6. In the ideal system, the output of a stable transfer function (digital filter) would approach some constant for a constant input.

7. In a real-time program the program must execute the model code synchronously with real time.

 

17.7 Прочитай, переведи текст BRICKWORK и заполни пропуски:

A. Mortar is often referred to as mud due to its appearance. Commons usually feature a frog, an indent in one surface that faces up during laying.

B. Ties are metal products that are approximately the length of a common.

C. This allows the two walls to function better as one structural unit without filling the cavity with a solid material and so lowering its insulative properties.

D. However, ties must be stainless to avoid them rotting in the alkaline conditions created by the cement in the mortar.

E. Brickwork is also used to finish openings such as doors or windows in buildings made of other materials.

F. It is created by alternately laying headers and stretchers in a single course.

G. If only one face of a Flemish bond wall is exposed, one third of the bricks are not visible, and hence may be of low visual quality.

H. Also, many brick walls surrounding kitchen gardens were designed with cavities so hot air could circulate in the winter, warming fruit trees or other produce spread against the walls, causing them to bloom earlier and forcing early fruit production.

I. Rat-trap bond, also known as Chinese bond, is a type of garden wall bond in which the stretchers and headers are laid on their sides, with the base of the stretcher facing outwards.

 

1. Brickwork masonry is produced when a bricklayer uses bricks and mortar to build up structures such as walls, bridges and chimneys. _.Where the bricks are to remain fully visible, as opposed to being covered up by plaster or stucco, this is known as face-work.

2. Flemish bond, also known as Dutch bond, has historically always been considered the most decorative bond, and for this reason was used extensively for dwellings until the adoption of the cavity wall. _.The next course is laid so that a header lies in the middle of the stretcher in the course below. Again, this bond is one brick thick. It is quite difficult to lay Flemish bond properly, since for best effect all the perpendiculars (vertical mortar joints) need to be vertically aligned. _.This is a better ratio than for English bond, the main rival of Flemish bond for load-bearing walls.

3. A common variation found in early 18th century buildings is glazed-headed Flemish bond, in which the exposed headers are burned until they vitrify with a black glassy surface.

4. _.This gives a wall with an internal cavity bridged by the headers, hence the name.

5. The main advantage of this bond is economy in use of bricks, giving a wall of one brick thickness with fewer bricks than a solid bond.

6. Rat-trap bond was in common use in England for building houses of fewer than three storeys up to the turn of the 20th century and is today still used in India as an economical bond, as well for the insulation properties offered by the air cavity. _.

7. In UK building yards what many would refer to as a house brick is known as a common with larger breezeblock-like materials being called solids. _.This is packed with mud as laying progresses and helps add lateral strength to the layer, as opposed to the vertical strength formed by the compressive weight of the brickwork on itself. _.They are used to tie layers of brickwork into one another. This is particularly important if a building is constructed with an inner and outer wall featuring a cavity where the ties will be placed through the cavity between mortar layers in the two walls. _. Ties are simply lengths of stainless steel wire, around twice as thick as that used to form a steel coat hanger, and have a loop at either end that is buried in the mortar as the wall progresses. Due to being stainless and reasonably thick, they are also somewhat expensive. _.

 

17.8 Ответь на вопросы:

 


1. How is brick masonry produced?

2. How is Flemish bond created?

3. What is a common variation of Flemish bond?

4. What is the advantage of rat-trap bond?

5. Where was rat-trap bond in common use?

6. What is a common?

7. What do commons usually feature?

8. What are ties used for?

9. Why are ties expensive?


 


17.9 Прочитай, переведи и перескажи текст HONG KONG — BASTION OF BAMBOO SCAFFOLDING:

 

Hong Kong’s skyline is dominated by some of the world’s tallest buildings. Nevertheless, the city still uses bamboo scaffolding for much of its construction work — a traditional skill passed down over 5000 years. Bamboo is sustainable, lightweight and cheap and, as long as it remains fairly dry, a good construction material with significant mechanical properties. Researchers, engineers, environmentalists and bureaucrats have taken an increasing interest in the craft, such that regulations and practice continue to be improved and refined. However, to alleviate remaining design and safety concerns a structural design code is needed.

Hong Kong continues its long-standing tradition of using bamboo scaffolding for new construction, renovation, repair work and signage. The city stands alone from the rest of the world in recognizing the sustainability of bamboo over steel and aluminium and has progressively raised training and safety standards of bamboo scaffolders. Bamboo scaffolding had previously been used in many parts of southeast Asia and mainland China but has mostly now been replaced by metal scaffolding. Except, that is, in Hong Kong, home to five of the world’s 25 tallest buildings. Its bamboo scaffolders remain unperturbed by the ever-increasing heights at which they weave their bamboo webs.

Working with giant grass.

According to Chinese legend the craft dates back 5000 years, when Yau Chao-Shi, a mythological character whose birthday is still celebrated, taught his people how to construct nest-like bamboo shelters in trees. Bamboo grows up to 30 m tall. It reaches its full height in one year and persists for several years without growing taller or wider, making it technically a grass rather than a tree. It is nevertheless the world’s fastest growing woody plant and, as such, is particularly useful for stabilising riverbanks and preventing slope erosion. Bamboo stems can be harvested after three years and are self-renewing, with new shoots produced from the roots without replanting. The circular hollow stems make light and, when seasoned, tough construction poles that can be used without further processing or finishing.

Some 1250 species and 150 traditional applications have been identified for bamboo. Millions of people live in houses made of bamboo in parts of central and north America and Asia. It provides floor decking, wall panels, rafters, ceilings, roofs, doors and windows. Bamboo is also used for building fences and light traffic bridges in south Asia. Traces of bamboo scaffolding are still seen in south China, but in Hong Kong it continues to be extensively used, researched and improved.

The traditional art of bamboo scaffolding has been passed on from one generation to the next with little written information. However, with increasing interest from the construction industry, educational institutions, statutory departments and promoters of sustainable resources, there has been a steady growth in the number of written regulations, guidelines, codes, conferences and publications on the subject. The focus in Hong Kong is on the locally available bamboo types, namely kao jue and mao jue, the nominal external diameters of which at base are 40 mm and 75 mm respectively.

The Code of Practice for Scaffolding Safely was first published in 1995 by the Hong Kong Labour Department. The code provided practical guidelines to the construction and maintenance of both bamboo and metal scaffolds. It gave broad material specification and minimum requirements for the configuration of commonly used scaffold types. Loads on working platforms supported by the scaffolds, however, were provided only for metal scaffolds. A separate code for bamboos, entitled Code of Practice for Bamboo Scaffolding Safety, was published in 2001. This included the minimum imposed loads on working platforms and a performance specification.

In 2006, the Hong Kong Buildings Department published Guidelines on the design and construction of bamboo scaffolds to supplement the Labour Department code. The guidelines provide recommended practice for the design, erection, maintenance and dismantling of bamboo scaffolds. If scaffold layouts need to deviate from the guidelines, the Buildings Department recommends a performance-based design by a corporate civil or structural member of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. After gauging industry reaction, the Buildings Department will consider publishing a code of practice in the future.





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