What does the demonstrative adjective this refer to?

15.7 Прочитай, переведи текст FOUNDATIONS OF RESIDENTIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:


1. A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations.

2. A deep foundation is used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak layer of soil to a stronger deeper layer of soil.

3. A shallow foundation is usually embedded a meter or so into soil. One common type is the spread footing which consists of pads of concrete or other materials which extend below the frost line and transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock. Another common type is the slab-on-grade foundation where the weight of the building is transferred to the soil through a concrete slab placed at the surface.

4. There are different types of deep foundations including helical piles, impact driven piles, caissons, piers, and earth stabilized columns. The naming conventions for different types of foundations vary among different engineers. Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete.

5. Other design considerations include scour and frost heave. Scour is when flowing water removes supporting soil from around a foundation (like a pier supporting a bridge over a river). Frost heave occurs when water in the ground freezes to form ice lenses.

6. Foundations are designed to have an adequate load capacity with limited settlement by a geotechnical engineer, and the foundation itself is designed structurally by a structural engineer.

7. The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing Shallow foundations of a capacity. When considering house versus the deep settlement, total settlement and foundations of a skyscraper differential settlement are normally considered. Differential settlement is when one part of a foundation settles more than another part. This can cause problems to the structure the foundation is supporting. It is necessary that a foundation is not loaded beyond its bearing capacity or the foundation will fail.

8. Changes in soil moisture can cause expansive clay to swell and shrink. This swelling can vary across the footing due to seasonal changes or the effects of vegetation removing moisture. The variation in swell can cause the soil to distort, cracking the structure over it. This is a particular problem for house footings in semi-arid climates such as South Australia, Southwestern US, Turkey, Israel, Iran and South Africa where wet winters are followed by hot dry summers. Raft slabs with inherent stiffness have been developed in Australia with capabilities to resist this movement. When structures are built in areas of permafrost, special consideration must be given to the thermal effect the structure will have on the permafrost. Generally, the structure is designed in a way that tries to prevent the permafrost from melting.

9. A bearing pile is a device to transmit the load of the building through a layer of soil too weak to take the load to a stronger layer of soil some distance underground; the pile acts as a column to carry the load down to the bearing stratum. Solid bearing piles were originally made of timber, which is rare today; more commonly they are made of precast concrete, and sometimes steel H-piles are used. The pile length may be a maximum of about 60 metres but is usually much less. The piles are put in place by driving them into the ground with large mechanical hammers. Hollow steel pipes are also driven, and the interiors are excavated and filled with concrete to form bearing piles; sometimes the pipe is withdrawn as the concrete is poured.

10. The foundations in residential and industrial buildings support considerably heavy loads. Floor loadings range from 450 to 1,500 kilograms per square metre, and the full range of foundation types is used for them. Spread footings are used, as are pile foundations, which are of two types, bearing and friction.

11. When the soil is so soft that even friction piles will not support the building load, the final option is the use of a floating foundation, making the building like a boat that obeys Archimedes’ principle — it is buoyed up by the weight of the earth displaced in creating the foundation. Floating foundations consist of flat reinforced concrete slabs or mats or of reinforced concrete tubs with walls turned up around the edge of the mat to create a larger volume.

12. An alternative to the bearing pile is the caisson. A round hole is dug to a bearing stratum with a drilling machine and temporarily supported by a steel cylindrical shell. The hole is then filled with concrete poured around a cage of reinforcing bars; and the steel shell may or may not be left in place, depending on the surrounding soil. The diameter of caissons varies from one to three metres. The friction pile of wood or concrete is driven into soft soil where there is no harder stratum for bearing beneath the site. The building load is supported by the surface friction between the pile and the soil.

13. Deeper foundation walls can also be built by the slurry wall method, in which a linear series of closely spaced caisson-like holes are successively drilled, filled with concrete, and allowed to harden; the spaces between are excavated by special clamshell buckets and also filled with concrete. During the excavation and drilling operations the holes are filled with a high-density liquid slurry which braces the excavation against collapse but still permits extraction of excavated material. Finally, the basement is dug adjoining the wall, and the wall is braced against earth pressure.

14. If these buildings do not have basements in cold climates, insulated concrete or masonry frost walls are placed under all exterior nonbearing walls to keep frost from under the floor slabs. Reinforced concrete foundation walls for basements must be carefully braced to resist lateral earth pressures. These walls may be built in excavations, poured into wooden forms. Sometimes a wall is created hy driving interlocking steel sheet piling into the ground, excavating on the basement side, and pouring a concrete wall against it.


15.8 Подбери заглавие к подходящим абзацам предыдущего текста:


1. Caissons.

2. The slurry wall method.

3. Bearing piles.

4. Reinforced concrete foundation walls.

5. Some specific features of foundations.

6. Floating foundations.


15.9 Прочитай, переведи текст DEEP FOUNDATIONS и заполни пропуски:


1. Boring is then undertaken using a digging bucket to drill through the underlying soils to design depth.

2. Upon reaching the design depth, a reinforcing cage is introduced.

3. There are many reasons a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, but some of the common reasons are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines).

4. The depth within the rock layer is considered to be equal to the diameter of the pile in hard rock layers and is taken to be equal to 2.5 times the diameter of the pile in soft rock layers.

5. Deep foundations can be installed by cither driving them into the ground or drilling a shaft and filling it with concrete, mass or reinforced.

6. Wooden piles are made from trunks of tall trees. Concrete piles are available in square, octagonal, and round cross-sections.

7. Construction methods depend on the geology of the site, in particular, whether boring is to be undertaken in dxy ground conditions or through water-logged but stable strata, i.e. wet boring.


A deep foundation is a type of foundation distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. _.There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including piles, drilled shafts, caissons and piers. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms. Deep foundations can be made out of timber, steel, reinforced concrete and pre-tensioned concrete. _.

Prefabricated piles are driven into the ground using a pile driver. Driven piles are either wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. _.They are reinforced with rebar and are often prestressed. Steel piles are either pipe piles or some sort of beam section (like an H-pile).

11 istorically, wood piles were spliced together when the design length was too large for a single pile; today splicing is common with steel piles, though concrete piles can be spliced with difficulty.

Driving piles, as opposed to drilling shafts, is advantageous because the soil displaced by driving the piles compresses the surrounding soil, causing greater friction against the sides of the piles, thus increasing their load-bearing capacity.

Foundations relying on driven piles often have groups of piles connected by a pile cap (a large concrete block into which the heads of the piles are embedded) to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. Pile caps and isolated piles are typically.

Connected with grade beams to tie the foundation elements together; lighter structural elements bear on the grade beams while heavier elements bear directly on the pile cap.

Rotary boring techniques offer larger diameter piles than any other piling method and permit pile construction through particularly dense or hard strata. _. Boring is done until the hard rock or soft rock layer is reached in the case of end bearing piles.

If the boring machine is not equipped with a rockauger, then socketing of the hard rock layer is done with the help of a heavy chisel which is dropped from a height of about 1.5 metres by suspending it from a tripod stand attached to a winch crane. The socketing is carried out until the desired depth within the rock layer has been attained. _.

Dry boring methods employ the use of a temporary casing to seal the pile bore through water-bearing or unstable strata overlying suitable stable material. _.Concrete is poured in the bore and brought up to the required level. The casing can be withdrawn or left in situ.

Wet boring also employs a temporary casing through unstable ground and is used when the pile bore cannot be sealed against water ingress. _. The reinforcing cage is lowered into the bore and concrete is placed by a tremie pipe.


15.10 Ответь на вопросы:


1. What is the difference between a deep foundation and a shallow foundation?

2. Why is a deep foundation preferred over a shallow foundation?

3. What are the other names of a deep foundation?

4. What are driven foundations characterized by?

5. What is the structure of pile foundation systems?

6. How are boring techniques employed for drilled piles?

7. What do dry boring methods consist in?

8. What is specific of wet boring?




Сложное дополнение — это сочетание существитель­ного или местоимения в объектном падеже (напр. me, him, us, them) с инфинитивом или причастием I. Су­ществует в трех основных вариантах:

1. С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием I после глаголов восприятия:

see I saw him drive the car. I saw them working in the lab. hear I didn’t hear you come into the room. I heard her playing the piano. watch We watched the plane land. We watched the children playing in the yard. notice Nobody noticed him go out. He didn’t notice that happen. feel She felt somebody touch her hand. They didn’t feel the train start.

I saw him enter the house. - Я видел, как он вошел в дом.

I saw him entering the house. - Я видел, как он входил в дом.

В первом случае (вышеперечисленные глаголы с инфинитивом без частицы to) подчеркивается факт действия, во втором (эти же глаголы с причастием) процесс действия.

2. С инфинитивом с частицей to после глаголов: to believe верить, считать I believe her to be a very good teacher. to know знать I know him to be a good student. to want хотеть I want you to help me. to expect ожидать I expect you to come in time. to advise советовать I advise you to enter the institute. to consider считать English climate is considered to be mild. to order приказывать He is ordered not to be late. to allow разрешать They allow to use dictionaries at the exam. to find находить I find your story to be very interesting. would like хотеть, желать I like you to finish your work.

3. С инфинитивом без частицы to после глаголов: to let, to make Don’t let them play in the street. Don’t make me laugh.

15.A Раскрой скобки:


1. Semen made me (do) it all over again.

2. Sabrina’s boss made her (learn) the instruction.

3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once.

4. Would you like me (read) the instruction now?

5. They won’t let us (leave) the lab till our work has been checked.

6. Roman wouldn’t let the stuff (smoke) in his cabinet.

7. Please let me (know) the results of your research as soon as possible.

8. Artem made us (wait) for two hours.

9. I let him (go) early as he had done his task.

10. I’d like Igor (enter) the university but I can’t make him (do) it.

11. I want Tanya (learn) English.

12. I heard the door (open) and saw my college (come) into the room.

13. I heard Inga (search) for the pier.

14. I saw him (go out) of the office.

15. The engineer advised us (drive) a pile.

16. Her boss doesn’t allow her (work) at the lab alone.

17. We expect our college (get) the first price at the next conference.

18. We don’t want you (tell) anything.

19. I saw them (open) the window.

20. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.


15.B Переведи на английский язык:


1. Вы ожидаете, что работа будет скоро сделана?

2. Вы хотите встретиться с проектировщиком сегодня?

3. Вы хотите, чтобы геодезист работал здесь.

4. Мы ожидаем, что они хорошо поработают над проектом.

5. Я хочу, чтобы он закончил эту работу.

6. Мы слышали, что она знает, когда он закончит работу.

7. Вы хотите, чтобы мы обсудили проектирование здания сегодня?

8. Мы ожидаем, что на этом месте будет построен новый офис.

9. Вы хотели бы, чтобы работа была сделана сегодня?


Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное подле­жащее) состоит из:

1. существительного в общем падеже или местоиме­ния в именительном падеже

2. глагола (обычно в страдательном залоге) + инфинитив.

Оборот переводится на русский язык придаточны­ми предложениями.

Не is known to be a good engineer. Известно, что он хороший инженер.

Не is said to have graduated from the University. Говорят, что он закончил университет.

The experiments were reported to be successful. Сооб­щили, что эксперименты были успешны.

В субъектном инфинитивном обороте могут упот­ребляться глаголы: to see видеть, to hear слышать, to say сказать, to expect ожидать, полагать, to think думать, полагать, считать, to report сообщать, to suppose предполагать, to believe полагать, to consider считать, полагать, to assume допускать, to know знать, которые могут стоять в любом времени в страда­тельном залоге.

Неопределенно-личным предложениям русского языка в английском языке чаще всего соответствуют пассивные обороты, такие как, например:

It is reported that... Сообщается, что...

It was supposed that... Предполагали, что...

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется также в сочетании с некоторыми глаголами, которые могут стоять в действительном залоге, а именно с гла­голами: to prove, to appear, to seem казаться, to turn out оказаться, to happen случаться

This metal turned out to be very brittle. Оказалось, что металл очень хрупкий.

The weather appeared to have improved. Казалось, что погода улучшилась.


15.C Переведи на русский язык:

1. A literature review was undertaken to identify some problems with respect to the construction of slab-on-grade foundations.

2. In case of spread footings, the base of the member transmitting load to the soil is made wider so as to distribute the load over wider area.

3. In making beams, care should be taken to avoid placing concrete in layers.

4. The beam was embedded in a foundation.

5. Piles are driven into the ground by different methods.

6. For this purpose deep and stiff foundations are usually required.

7. The model for predicting the heave of the soil was based on the variation of pressures with depth.

8. Foundations constructed on these clays are subjected to large uplifting forces caused by the swelling.

9. Further constructions was started only after the curing of the raft had been fully done.




16.1 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст MASONRY WALLS:

Structural masonry walls are primarily used in multistoreyed buildings, where they offer greater load-bearing capacity and fire resistance. Brick and concrete block are the major materials, brick being favoured for exterior surfaces because of its appearance and durability. Solid brick walls are rarely used due to the higher labour and material costs; composite walls of brick and block or block alone are common.

Cavity walls are used in colder climates; in these, two with vertical layers of masonry are built on either side of a layer of rigid insulation. The Wythes are joined together by steel reinforcement that runs through the insulation and is laid in the horizontal masonry joints at intervals. Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent of that of a solid wall. Timber floor and roof construction, similar to balloon framing, is used with masonry construction; and there is also some use of precast prestressed hollow concrete panels which are fireproof and can span up to nine metres.


16.2 Ответь на вопросы:


1. Why are masonry walls used in multistoreyed buildings?

2. What materials are masonry walls built of?

3. Where are cavity walls used?

4. What is a heat-flow rate of cavity walls?

5. What type of framing is used with masonry construction?


16.3 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст VENEER MASONRY:


A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay- based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural.

The brick veneer is generally connected to the structural wall by brickties (metal strips that are attached to the structural wall, as well as the mortar joints of the brick veneer). There is typically an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall. As clay- based brick is usually not completely waterproof, the structural wall will often have a water-resistant surface (usually tar paper) and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks, real and cultured stones, and veneer adobe are sometimes used in a very similar veneer fashion.

Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, brick, adobe, stone, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or dry wall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry. This technique does, however, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and, consequently, is generally more expensive.


16.4 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст INTERIOR FINISHES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS:


Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board, a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound, giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance. Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile.

Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow, core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honey-comb paper core and solid wood edge strips: door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes. Plastic laminates bonded to particleboard are extensively used for built-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floor finish is carpeting, most of which is now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained and its soft visual and tactile texture as well as its sound-absorbing qualities make it attractive for residential use. Hardwoods — primarily oak, birch, and maple — are also used for floors, both in the traditional narrow planks nailed to plywood decks and as prefabricated parquet elements which are applied with adhesives. In wet or hard-use areas vinyl-composition tiles or ceramic tiles are used.


16.5 Ответь на вопросы:


1. What do interior finishes define?

2. What is the most widely used wall finish?

3. How is wet gypsum plaster cast?

4. What areas is gypsum board used in?

5. What are the finishes of doors?

6. Where are plastic laminates used?

7. What finishes are used for floors?


16.6 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст PLASTER SLABS:


For partitions and ceilings, plaster slabs are now in general use when work has to be finished quickly. For ceilings they require simply to be nailed to the joists, the joints being made with plaster, and the whole finished with a thin setting coat. In some cases, with fireproof floors, for instance, the slabs are hung up with wire hangers so as to allow a space of several inches between the soffit of the concrete floor and the ceiling. For partitions the slabs frequently have the edges tongued and grooved to form a better connection; often, too, they are holed through vertically, so that, when grouted in with semi-fluid plaster, the whole partition is bound together, as it were, with plaster dowels. Where very great strength is required the work may be reinforced by small iron rods through the slabs. This forms a very strong and rigid partition which is at the same time fire-resisting and of lightweight, and when finished measures only from two to four inches (102 mm) thick.

The slabs may be obtained either with a keyed surface, which requires finishing with a setting coat when the partition or ceiling is in position, or a smooth finished face, which may be papered or painted immediately the joints have been carefully made. Partitions are also formed with one or other of the forms of metal lathing fixed to iron uprights and plastered on both sides. So strong is the result that partitions of this class only two or three inches (76 mm) thick were used for temporary cells for prisoners at Newgate Gaol during the rebuilding of the new sessions house in the Old Bailey in London.


16.7 Определи верны или нет высказывания:


1. Now plaster slabs are used in the areas in which work should be finished quickly.

2. Plaster slabs are finished with a coat for ceilings.

3. Plaster slabs are nailed to fireproof floors.

4. Slabs are grooved for partitions.

5. Iron rods are installed in slabs to reduce the work strength.

6. A keyed surface of slabs requires finishing.

7. A finished surface may be painted before making the joints.

8. Partitions can also be formed with metal joints.


16.8 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст CASTLES IN THE SKY: HOW NEW YORK CITY'S COLOSSAL SKYSCRAPERS WERE CONSTRUCTEDи перескажи понравившуюся часть:


High above the streets of Manhattan, the teams of riveters worked to a set routine. As an enormous crane hoisted each steel beam into place on the growing Empire State Building, a workman called the “heater” warmed each rivet in a portable furnace until it glowed cherry-red, removed it with tongs and tossed it to a “catcher”, perched precariously on the very edge of nothing. Usually he caught it in his “catching can”, but sometimes he missed. Using tongs, the catcher knocked off the cinders and lodged the rivet in the prepared hole. Another workmate held it firmly with the aid of a heavy steel bar, while a third smashed the rivet into place with a compressed air hammer.

It took 60 000 tons of steel to build the Empire State. The beams and girders were cast in Pittsburgh, and within a day or two of being made, each numbered piece had been transported to Manhattan, hoisted into position and riveted into place. There was little storage space available on site, so elaborate charts and timetables were used to monitor progress and to ensure that deliveries kept precise pace with the erectors’ and riveters’ schedules.

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