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Past Simple или Present Perfect




Ø Past Simple употребляется для выражения действия, которое произошло в конкретный момент в прошлом. Время известно и важно: Kate Steele wrote her first novel in 1970.

Ø Present Perfect же употребляется для выражения действия, которое произошло в неопределенный момент в прошлом. Точное время неизвестно и неважно: Kate Steele has written a lot of successful novels.

Ø Past Simple употребляется, когда речь идет о жизни людей, которые умерли: William Shakespeare wrote “Romeo & Juliet.”

Ø Past Simple также употребляется для выражения действия, которое началось и закончилось в прошлом: George Barns was a basketball player for ten years.

Ø А Present Perfect или Present Perfect Continuous употребляются для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем: Jim Presley has worked/has been working as a waiter for fifteen years.

Ø Present Perfect также употребляется для оглашения новостей, а Past Simple или Past Continuous употребляется, чтобы сообщить подробности о них: I’ve just seen the new boss. I was talking to Carol on the phone when he came in.

Ø used to + инфинитив употребляется для выражения прошлых привычек или обыкновений которые уже отсутствуют: They used to travel a lot when they were younger. Вместо used to можно употреблять The Past Simple.

Ø used to + инфинитив = the past simple когда:

a. действие было однократным: I drove to work yesterday.

b. мы знаем точное количество раз, которое совершалось действие: I went to the cinema four times last month.

Ø would/used to употребляется для выражения повторяющихся действий в прошлом: We would/used to eat out on Sundays.

Ø would не употребляется с глаголам чувственно-визуального восприятия.

Ø be used to употребляется для выражения привычки: They are used to the cold. She wasn’t used to living in the country.

Ø get used to употребляется для выражения привыкания: I’m getting used to the weather. He didn’t like using the computer at first, but he got used to it. She’ll soon get used to wearing contact lenses.

 

Past Simple – Past Continuous – Past Perfect

 

Ø The Past Simple употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло сразу же после какого-либо другого действия в прошлом: Last Monday, Lisa and her husband fed the children when he came home.

The Past Continuous употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло тогда, когда его прервали: Last Tuesday, Lisa was feeding the children when her husband came home.

The Past Perfect употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло перед другим действием в прошлом: Last Friday, Lisa had already fed the children when her husband came home.

 

12.A Составь вопросы и краткие ответы:

1. They spend pounds of cement last year.

2. Tom sees construction workers, as they left the work site.

3. They built this house twenty years ago.

12.B Выбери наиболее подходящий вариант:

1. We went to a construction last night/ tonight.
2. I already/often on construction early in the morning.
3. «Are you going on the site tonight?» “No, I went/ had gone/ had been going yesterday.”
4. Did you see a mason? “No he he was leaving/ had been leaving/ had left by the time I arrived at his house.”
5. “Where is constructor?” “He was talking/ talked/ had talked on the phone when I saw him.”
6. Did you enjoy our high-rise building. Yes, it’s the tallest building I saw/'ve ever seen/am seeing.
7. “I like the quality of your concrete. Where is it from?” “We have brought it from Germany.”

12.C Раскрой скобки:

Ø Hi Dima! I (not/ see) you for ages. How are you?

Ø I’m very well. Actually, I (just/ come back) from the conference.

Ø Really? That’s nice. Where (you/ go)?

Ø I (go) to Novosibirsk to report my research. My head of research (live) there.

Ø Yes, you (tell) me that, I think. (you/ have) an efficient time?

Ø Yes, it (be) efficiently. The flight was very long, though.

Ø Yes, you (look) quite tired.

Ø Well, I (just/ come) from the airport.

Ø Bye, Dima. Have a good rest.

Ø Thanks.

12.D Раскрой скобки:

1. “Did you manage to get to the bank yesterday?” “No, it (close) before I came.”

2. “I see you finally bought a new blue-ray.” “Yes, I (try) to fix the old one for ages when I decided to buy a new one.”

3. “Where did you go for dinner on your birthday?” “I (go) to the new Chinese restaurant in town.”

4. “What are you looking for?” “My keys. I (lose) them.”

5. “I’m tired. We (walk) all morning.” “Let’s stop & have something to eat, then.”

6. “What (you/ buy) your girl-friend for your date?” “I got her a pendant.”

7. “How did you break your arm?” “I broke it when I (train) in gym.”

8. “Did you enjoy your holiday?” “Well, it didn’t go the way I (plan) it, but it was fun.”

12.E Life on Earth is changing. Составь предложения как в примере:

 

ü Trees provide oxygen & homes for animals. However, trees are disappearing because of fires & logging. But many governments have started to plant new trees.

THE FACTS …

ü Trees/ provide/ oxygen & homes for animals.

1. Many different species of fish/ live on coral reefs.

2. Many people/ use/ coal & oil as fuel for heating in their homes.

3. Ocean life/ produce/ 90% of our oxygen.

THE CHANGES …

ü Trees/ disappear/ because of fires & logging.

1. Fish/ die/ because fishermen/ destroy/ coral reefs.

2. Coal & oil supplies/ decrease.

3. We/ pollute/ the oceans with rubbish.

THE ACTION TAKEN …

ü Many governments/ start/ to plant new trees.

1. Some fishermen/ stop/ fishing near coral reefs.

2. Many people/ change/ to other sources of fuel for heating.

3. We/ begin/ to recycle rubbish instead of throwing it all away.

MODULE13 BUILDING CAREER AND MODERN TECHNOLOGIES

13.1 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст STRUCTURAL ENGINEER:

Structural engineers analyse, design, plan, and research structural components and structural systems to achieve design goals and ensure the safety and comfort of users or occupants. Their work takes account of safety, technical, economic and environmental concerns, but they may also consider aesthetic and social factors.

Typical structures designed by a structural engineer include buildings, towers and bridges. Other structures such as oil rigs, space satellites, aircraft and ships may also be designed by a structural engineer. Most structural engineers are employed in the construction industry, however there are also structural engineers in the aerospace, automobile and shipbuilding industries. In the construction industry, they work closely with architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, surveyors, and construction managers.

Structural engineers ensure that buildings and bridges are built to be strong enough and stable enough to resist all appropriate structural loads in order to prevent or reduce loss of life or injury. They also design structures to be stiff enough to not deflect or vibrate beyond acceptable limits. Fatigue maybe an important consideration for bridges and for aircraft design, or for other structures which experience a large number of stress cycles over their lifetime. Consideration is also given to durability of materials against possible deterioration which may impair performance over the design lifetime.

 

13.2 Заполни пропуски:


1. The work to be done by a structural engineer _.

2. The structures a structural engineer designs _.

3. The areas a structural engineer is involved in _.

4. The experts a structural engineer works with_.

5. The properties of the materials and structures to be taken into account by a structural engineer_.


 

13.3 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст SURVEYING AS A CAREER:

1. The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously. Engineering, especially civil engineering, depends heavily on surveyors.

2. Whenever there are roads, railways, reservoir, dams, retaining walls, bridges or residential areas to be built, surveyors are involved. They establish the boundaries of legal descriptions and the boundaries of various lines of political divisions. They also provide advice and data for geographical information systems, computer databases that contain data on land features and boundaries.

3. Surveyors must have a thorough knowledge of algebra, basic calculus, geometry, and trigonometry. They must also know the laws that deal with surveys, property, and contracts. In addition, they must be able to use delicate instruments with accuracy and precision. In the United States, surveyors and civil engineers use units of feet wherein a survey foot is broken down into 10ths and 100ths.

4. In most states of the U.S., surveying is recognized as a distinct profession apart from engineering. Licensing requirements vary by state, however these requirements generally all have a component of education, experience and examinations. In the past, experience gained through an apprenticeship, together with passing a series of state-administered examinations, was required to attain licensure. Nowadays, most states insist upon basic qualification of a degree in surveying in addition to experience and examination requirements.

 

13.4 Ответь на вопросы:


1. What experts does civil engineering depend on?

2. What areas and structures are surveyors involved in?

3. What does a surveyor’s work include?

4. What scientific knowledge must a surveyor have?

5. Should a surveyor be good at legal aspects in his work?

6. Should a surveyor be able to operate surveying instruments?

7. Why is surveying a distinct profession apart from engineering in the USA?

8. What is required to get a qualification of a surveyor?


 

 

13.5 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст MODERN THEODOLITES:

In today’s theodolites, the reading out of the horizontal and vertical circles is usually done electronically. The readout is done by a rotary encoder, which can be absolute, e.g. using Gray codes, or incremental, using equidistant light and dark radial bands. In the latter case the circles spin rapidly, reducing angle measurement to electronic measurement of time differences. Additionally, lately computer-controlled display sensors have been added to the focal plane of the telescope allowing both auto-targeting and the automated measurement of residual target offset. All this is implemented in embedded software.

Also, many modern theodolites, costing up to $ 10,000 apiece, are equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices, generally infrared based, allowing the measurement in one go of complete three-dimensional vectors which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points. This technique is called a resection solution or free station position surveying and is widely used in mapping surveying. The instruments, “intelligent” theodolites called self-registering tacheometers or “total stations”, perform the necessary operations, saving data into internal registering units, or into external data storage devices. Typically, ruggedized laptops are used as data collectors for this purpose.

 

13.6 Заполни пропуски:

1. In today’s theodolites, the _ _ of the horizontal and vertical

2. _ is usually done _. The readout is done by a rotary_ _, which can be absolute, e.g. using Gray codes,

3. or incremental, using _ light and dark radial _.

4. In the latter case the circles _ rapidly, reducing angle to electronic _ of time differences.

5. Additionally, lately computer-controlled_ sensors have been added to the focal plane of the telescope _ both auto-tnrgeting and the _ measurement of residual target offset.

6. All this is _ in embedded software.

7. Also, many modern theodolites, costing up to _ apiece, are _ with integrated electro-optical distance measuring _, generally infrared based, allowing the in one go of complete _ vectors which can then be _ to a pre-existing _ _ system in the area by _ of a sufficient number of control.

8. This _ is called a resection solution or free station position _ and is widely used in surveying. The instruments, “intelligent” theodolites called _ tacheometers or “total stations”, the necessary operations,_ _ data into internal registering units, or into external data _ devices. Typically, ruggedized _ are used as data collectorsfor this _.

 

13.7 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст FOUNDATIONS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS:

All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. There are two criteria for stability: first, the soil under the foundations should be able to receive the imposed load without more than about 2.5 centimetres of settlement and, second, the settlement should be uniform under the entire building. It is also important that the bottom of the foundation be below the maximum winter frost level. Wet soil expands as it freezes, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles can move the building up and down, leading to possible displacement and damage. Maximum frost depth varies with climate and topography. It can be as deep as 1.5 metres in cold continental climates and is zero in tropical and some subtropical areas.

The foundation systems for low-rise residential buildings are suitable for their light loads; nearly all are supported on spread footings, which are of two types — continuous footings that support walls and isolated pad footings that support concentrated loads. The footings themselves are usually made of concrete poured directly on undisturbed soil to a minimum depth of about 30 centimetres.

Foundation walls can be built of reinforced concrete or masonry, particularly concrete block. Concrete blocks are of a standard size larger than bricks and are hollow, forming a grid of vertical planes. They are the least expensive form of masonry — using cheap but strong material — and their large size economizes on the labour required to lay them. Their appearance and weathering properties are inferior to those of fired masonry, but they are satisfactory for foundation walls, in some places timber foundation walls and spread footings are used. Excavation for foundations is the most highly mechanized operation in this building type; it is done almost entirely with bulldozers and backhoes.

 

13.8 Ответь на вопросы:


1. What are the criteria for foundation stability?

2. Why is it important that the foundation bottom be below the maximum winter frost level?

3. What is the maximum frost depth?

4. What are foundations of low-rise buildings characterized by?

5. What materials can foundation walls be built of?

6. What are the differences between bricks and concrete blocks?


 

13.9 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст PIPE PILES:

 

Pipe piles are a type of steel driven pile foundation and are a good candidate for battered piles. Pipe piles can be driven either open end or closed end. When driven open end, soil is allowed to enter the bottom of the pipe or tube. If an empty pipe is required, a jet of water or an auger can be used to remove the soil inside following driving. Closed end pipe piles are constructed by covering the bottom of the pile with a steel plate or cast steel shoe. In some cases, pipe piles are filled with concrete to provide additional moment capacity or corrosion resistance.

In the United Kingdom, this is not generally done in order to reduce the cost. In these cases, corrosion protection is provided by allowing for a sacrificial thickness of steel or by adopting a higher grade of steel. If a concrete filled pipe pile is corroded, most of the load carrying capacity of the pile will remain intact due to the concrete, while it will be lost in an empty pipe pile.

The structural capacity of pipe piles is primarily calculated based on steel strength and concrete strength (if filled). The thickness of the steel considered for determining capacity is typically reduced by 1/16 in. compared to the actual pipe to account for corrosion. Steel pipe piles can either be new steel manufactured specifically for the piling industry or reclaimed steel tubular casing previously used for other purposes such as oil and gas exploration.

 

13.10 Заполни таблицу:

 

The driving of pipe piles  
The construction of pipe piles  
The protection of pipe piles  
The calculation of the structural capacity of pipe piles  
The areas in which pipe piles are used  

 

13.11 Прочитай, переведи текст DOWNTOWN и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:

 

1. Now steel frame blocks are rising on a three part site being developed by Ballymore for mixed use, with offices, retail space and hotel floors above. Largest will be a development with two towers on the square site at the end, one of these a future landmark with 44 floors, the city’s highest building. Landscaped space will also be over a five-storey basement car park filling the whole 96,000 m2 space. To create this large volume and tower foundations, groundwork specialist Bachy Soletanche has been installing a deep contiguous piled wall around the site this summer. In recent weeks, as the large excavation inside got underway inside, it has been back on site to install a line of ground anchors in the wall.

2. Birmingham’s latest development includes a 44 storey-tower with a five storey basement. Bachy Soletanche is just finishing the foundations.

3. “These are for temporary support of the wall during the basement construction,” explains contracts manager Steve Mallinson. “Once the concreted base slab and floors are in place they will provide all the structural support needed and the anchors will be cut through.” The tendons will remain in the ground afterwards. “We also had to do ten plunge columns for the site approach ramp within the main wall,” says Mallinson. These hefty steel H-section columns, surrounded by pea gravel inside their pile casings, are gradually being exposed again as the site excavation proceeds.

4. For the ten top-down piles Bachy installed a basic bored pile with casing and then used its special plunge column rig to achieve the 5 mm accuracy needed for positioning the I section steel columns.

5. Contractor PC Harrington is doing the excavation and base concreting at present. But until recently Bachy has unusually had the site to itself. “We were effectively a main contractor,” says Mallinson, “installing security and site welfare, arranging spoil disposal and concrete deliveries.”

6. Birmingham, England has long had a reputation as a windswept concrete jungle, the result of road focused re-development in the 1960s. But a wave of new development is modernising the city centre with friendlier mixed use schemes. One of the biggest is transforming a bleak space close to the Snow Hill station, the city’s second central railway station. For years the area has been mainly rough ground, used for car parking alongside a main road, with railway lines nearby and assorted 1960s concrete multistorey car parks.

7. It was a change, he says, not having to interleave between other work, though with two support cranes, two Bauer BG 22 piling rigs, spoil heaps, reinforcement deliveries and site accommodation to deal with, the site became full enough. As the 241 piles in the perimeter wall were installed he even had to block off two of three site entrances, which meant some careful logistics were needed.

8. For the 220 m length of the main wall, project design consultant WSP had opted for contiguous piles, “which is the right choice,” says Mallinson, “because the ground is dry and you don’t need any interlocking.” Piles are 750 mm diameter.

9. The obstacles were mainly several metres down and up to 3 m thick. To get through meant using the full strength of the Bauer rigs in straight boring mode — the dual purpose rigs could be converted for such work in about 24 hours and then drove through the hard material with tungsten carbide boring heads. “We had site investigation data but did further probe piles at various locations around the perimeter to work out what we could do with the CFA and what would take the harder cased bored work,” says Mallin­son. In the end about 30% bored piling was needed, somewhat less than Bachy had estimated, which meant it came out ahead.

10. To get through this fairly soft ground should be relatively straightforward. Bachy hoped to work with continuous flight piling mainly, which is quick and economical. But there is always a but. On this site it was obstacles in the ground, remnants of the 1960s, including various road underpasses and subways. “A lot of it was grubbed out in a preparatory contract,” says Brown. “But there was some left where it would have caused undermining of the highway.”

11. But there is often another but. The sandstone and sand caused difficulties with both types of piling “because porous ground tends to suck the moisture out of the concrete,” says Mallinson. “That made it stiffer and harder to get the pre-made reinforcement cages in after the augur was withdrawn.” Bachy switched to a more fluid mix and a highly disciplined pile procedure where cages were positioned within a minute of the augur being withdrawn.

12. Snow Hill development includes 56,000 m2 of office space, a five-star hotel and 332 luxury apartments in a 44-storey tower, five major new public spaces which — it is hoped — will create a new core to Birmingham’s commercial heartland Kier Group is the main contractor with Arup heading up the mechanical and electrical engineering contract, while Alan Baxter Associates is the structures and highways consultant. Ballymore Properties is the developer of the Snow Hill project. It has worked on 22 city centre projects in Liverpool, Luton, Bristol and London. In London’s Docklands, current schemes include Pan Peninsula, Ontario Tower and Leamouth Peninsula.

13. A steel frame sitting on the casings had three sets of hydraulic rams for precision adjustment of the central steel while it was fixed with around 5 m of concrete at the pile base. Pea gravel fills the casing. The 12 weeks’ schedule met, Bachy retired for a month while the excavation began, returning in late October to begin anchoring. Some 70 anchors go in, a row of one every three piles. Each is 15 m long and 178 mm diameter, driven by a Casagrande M6 articulating rig.

14. Five strand reinforcement bundles from Diwidag are grouted into the bottom 6 m or so of the anchor which runs at a 45° incline into the sandstone. That too has gone to schedule and the site is now almost ready for the main works by contractor Altius.

15. The Snow Hill development as it will look.

The wall will hold back the ground which comprises a few metres of fill, then a 3—5 m thick sand layer which becomes weathered sandstone further down and gradually more competent rock. “The bedrock layer slopes from 2 m to 14 m down across the site and the piles must be up to 17.5 m deep,” says site engineer Mathew Brown, “though they average out a little less.”

 

  THE FUTURE TENSES

 

The Future Simple употребляется для выражения:

Ø предсказаний будущего, обычно с глаголами think, believe, expect; выражениями be sure, be afraid; наречиями perhaps, certainly, probably: His parents think he will become an artist one day.

Ø неожиданных решений и предложений: I’ll take this jacket. Since it’s your birthday, I’ll pay for lunch.

Ø событий, ситуаций, которые точно произойдут в будущем, и которые невозможно контролировать: Jill will be two years old next month.

Ø обещаний, обычно с глаголами promise, swear, guarantee, угроз, предупреждений, просьб, обозначения надежды, обычно с I hope: I hope pollution levels will drop soon. Factories must stop polluting the air or else we won’t be able to breathe.

Индикаторы: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year, tonight, soon, in a week/month/year, etc.

УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ОТРИЦАНИЕ ВОПРОС
I We shall V1 I We shan’t V1 Shall I we V1?
He She It You They will V1 He She It You They won’t V1 Will he she it you they V1?

The Future Continuous употребляется для выражения:

Ø действия, которое произойдет в обозначенное время в будущем: This time next week, I’ll be skiing in Austria.

Ø действия, которое произойдет в будущем в результате обыденности или договоренности: ‘Shall I inform the rest of the team?’ ‘No, I’ll do it. I’ll be seeing them at the meeting anyway’.

Ø действия в будущем, когда мы вежливо спрашиваем о чьих-либо планах (совпадают ли наши желания с их планами): ‘Will you be going out later?’ ‘Yes. Why?’ ‘Could you get me a sandwich, please?’

УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ОТРИЦАНИЕ ВОПРОС
I We shall be Ving I We shan’t be Ving Shall I we be Ving?
He She It You They will be Ving He She It You They won’t be Ving Will he she it you they be Ving?

The Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет закончено до обозначенного времени в будущем: They will have finished their meeting by four o’clock this afternoon.

Индикаторы: by, by the time, before, until, by then, etc.

УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ОТРИЦАНИЕ ВОПРОС
I We shall have V3/ed I We shan’t have V3/ed   Shall I we have V3/ed?
He She It You They will have V3/ed He She It You They won’t have V3/ed     Will he she it you they have V3/ed?

The Future Perfect Continuous употребляется для выражения длительности действия до определенного времени в будущем: By the time Rick retires, he will have been working for the same company for thirty years.

Индикаторы: by … for.

УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ОТРИЦАНИЕ ВОПРОС
I We shall have been Ving I We shan’t have been Ving   Shall I we have been Ving?
He She It You They will have been V3/ed He She It You They won’t have been V3/ed     Will he she it you they have been Ving?

Will / Shall

Ø WILL YOU …? употребляется для выражения просьбы: Will you open the door for me, please?

Ø WON’T употребляется для выражения отказа: I’ve talked to Sue about her decision to leave, but she won’t listen.

SHALL I/WE …? употребляется для:

a) выражения предложения: Shall I give you a hand with those bags?

b) выражения совета: Shall we wait until the rain stops?

c) получения инструкции: What shall I do with all these letters? Put them on my desk.

Present Simple используется в значении будущего, когда мы ссылаемся на программы или расписания (поезда, автобусы и т.д.): The film starts in ten minutes. (расписание кинотеатра)

Be going to употребляется для выражения:

Ø планов на будущее, намерений или стремлений:I’m going to employ more staff. I’m going to expand my company.

Ø предвидений ближайшего будущего: Look at him! He is going to win the race.

Ø The Future Simple не употребляется после while, before, until, as soon as, after, if, by the time или as. Вместо этого употребляется The Present Simple или Present Perfect: I’ll wait until you finish/have finished. А не: until you will finish.

Ø When (= в какое время) употребляется, как вопросительное слово, за ним следует The Future Simple: When will I know the results? I can’t tell when it will be ready.

Ø When (= в то время) употребляется, как временное слово и за ним следует The Present Simple: He’ll call us when he gets there.

If может следовать за The Future simple только после выражений, которые выражают незнание, неуверенность I don’t know, I doubt, I wonder: I wonder if he will be on time. Но: If you see him, tell him about the party.

После by the time, until, before, употребляется The Present Simple в придаточных времени. The Future Perfect и The Future Perfect Continuous могут стоять как перед, так и после них: I will have tidied up by the time you get back. By the time she finishes work, we will have been waiting for more than an hour.

13.A Выбери наиболее подходящий вариант:


1. Have you builded just/ yet?

2. Construction trade worked very hard these days/ soon.

3. “Did paper hanger hung wallpapers on time?” “No, I had been waiting/ had waited/ was waiting for an hour before he pfpered with wallpaper”.

4. “How is Sasha now?” “He gets/ is getting/ has been getting better slowly.”

5.Were you at constructoin site yesterday? No, I am not/was/was not. I was obtain an order.

6.Where is the carpenter? I don't know. I am not seeing/ haven't seen/ didn't see him today.

7.Whats wrong? My roof has broken down. Will you help /you will help/ shall you help me, please?

8.“It’s very hot in this room, isn’t it?” “Yes. I will you open/ open/ will open the window.”

9.“Where is Christine?” “I don’t know. I am not seeing/ haven’t seen/ didn’t see her today.”

10.“What’s wrong?” “My car has broken down. Will you help/ You will help/ Shall you help me, please?”


13.B Раскрой скобки:

 

1. Did you find the beams you looking for? Yes. They … on my construction site all the time. (be)
2. What time … from fruss tomorrow? Very early. At 6 clock in the morning (you leave)
3. Svetlana is very good at working with the building design, isn't she? Yes. She the same job for thirty years. (do)
4. When did you see Katy? While I wait the construction contractor yesterday morning. (wait)
5. Have you made for Saturday get? Yes, I go to courses on applied science with Ed. (go)
6. Where were you at 5 o'clock yesterday? I obtain an order. (have)
7. Did you enjoy your tower? Yes, but I was nervous because I afraid of heights. (not,fly)
8. Dima is going on business trip next week. Yes, I know. This time next week he … to courses. (fly)
9. you complete a job on schedule by Friday? Yes, I’ll object to you on Thursday evening (your complete)

 

13.C Раскрой скобки:

 

When engineer Stepanov (open) the door, he knew someone (be) in the worker’s room. Things (be) different. Earlier that morning, he (see) for roofer to leave the worker’s room. Stepanov (go) into the construction laboratory. The window (be) open. He was sure the (close) it earlier. Next, he (go) into the construction site. Stepanov knew something very strange (go) on. He went back into the laboratory. He just (get) to the top of the stairs when he heard a noise coming from the basement. Slowly he (open) door & there, in the middle of the construction bags, (lie) his builders! They (sleep)! Stepanov was very angry.

 

13.D Dr. Samson is a scientist. He is going on a mission to Saturn with some astronauts. Составь предложения как в примере:

 


1. What have they arranged?

ü leave/ Earth/ on Saturday. They’re leaving Earth on Saturday.

• return/ to Earth/ in two months

2. What will they be doing while they’re there?

ü do/ experiments. They’ll be doing experiments while they’re there.

• collect/ samples to take back to earth

• search/ the planet for signs of life

3. What will they have done by the time they come back?

ü take/ more than 3000 photographs. They’ll have taken more than 3000 photographs.

• walk/ on the surface of the planet

• be/ in space for about 2 months


13.E Life has changed a lot in the past century. Составь предложения как в примере:

1. 100 years ago, people used to eat simple, home-made food. Today, we eat tinned food & pre-packaged meals. In the future, scientists are bound to invent food pills which will replace actual meals.

 

 


2. 100 years ago, people used to

Today, we

In the future, scientists are on the point of invention of

3. 100 years ago, people used to

Today, we

In the future, scientists are bound to invent

4. 100 years ago, people used to

Today, we

In the future, we expect to make

5. 100 years ago, people used to

Today, we

In the future, scientists are on the point of

6. 100 years ago, people used to

Today, we

In the future, we expect to


 

 

MODULE14 SURVEYING

14.1 Сопоставь понятия и определения:

1. a centre line to which parts of a structure may be referred 2. a flexible form of a ruler a) resolution b) level
3. an architect’s drawing of one side of a building 4. the means by which land boundaries are established/relocated c) peg d) elevation
5. the power of an instrument to give a clear picture of things 6. an instrum ent having a sequence of marks at regular intervals e) plane f) axis
7. a short piece of wood or metal used to mark something 8. an instrument used for measuring angles g) theodolite h) measuring rod
9. an instrument for showing whether a surface is horizontal 10. a flat surface i) measuring tape j) jcadastral survey

 

14.2 Сопоставь понятия и их определения:

1. plane of reference 2. execute land survey a) угловое разрешение b) поднять профессию
3. establish boundaries 4. construction layout survey c) установить оборудование d) координатная плоскость
5. gather information 6. accomplish an objective e) разбивка стройплощадки f) землемерный знак границы
7. install equipment 8. angular resolution g) собирать информацию h) выполнять полевую съемку
9. boundary corner 10. elevate profession i) достичь цели j) устанавливать границы

 

14.3 Прочитай и письменно переведи, используя:

 


1. area — участок, район; площадь

2. residential (housing) area — жилой район

3. bearing area — площадь опоры, несущая поверхность

4. a cross-section(al) area — площадь поперечного сечения

5. instrument — инструмент; прибор

6. surveying instrument — геодезический инструмент

7. measuring instrument — измерительный инструмент

8. levelling instrument — нивелир, ватерпас

9. instrumentation — контрольно-измерительные приборы


 

1. Resistance is provided by transferring the thrust force to the soil through the larger bearing area of the block such that the resultant pressure against the soil does not exceed the horizontal bearing strength of the soil. 2. It is a nice starter home by a park, the least expensive house in an expensive area, and really fits all of our requirements. 3. When a plane cuts through an object, an area is projected onto the plane. Any plane can be used to cut through the surface, but when that plane is perpendicular to an axis of symmetry, it projection is called a cross-sectional area. 4. Safe driving in residential areas is important. 5. The garden is twelve square metres in area. 6. The area is also fast developing as a recreational and retirement housing area with a large number of foreigners now living in the area plus housing developments that have been implemented by local entrepreneurs. 7. The newest requirements in instrumentation and test equipment demand even higher speeds and new levels of precision. 8. This company manufactures, markets, imports and exports a wide range of measuring instruments of world-renowned brands.9. Surveying instruments are used for the accurate measurement of features, orientation and absolute positioning of large scale objects in engineering, construction, mapping, industry, defense and other applications. 10. The use of levelling instruments is essential to various parts of the construction process, ranging from investigating the original site to locating the building on the site, and establishing grades and elevations of various parts of the structure. 11. Instruments used in surveying operations measure vertical and horizontal angles, and distance.

14.4 Подготовь и сделай сообщения по следующим темам:


1. Film technology and semiconductor technology.

2. Silicon for microelectronics.

3. Oxidation and its function.

4. The techniques for the deposition of thin films.


 

14.5 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст SURVEYING TECHNIQUES:

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.

Furthermore, a particular type of surveying known as land surveying is the detailed study or inspection by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries.

It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services, such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.

Historically, distances were measured using a variety of means, such as chains with links of a known length, for instance a Gunter’s chain or measuring tapes made of steel. In order to measure horizontal distances, these chains or tapes would be pulled according to temperature to reduce sagging and slack. Additionally, attempts to hold the measuring instrument level would be made. In instances of measuring up a slope, the surveyor might have to “break” the measurement — that is, raise the rear part of the tape up ward, plumb from where the last measurement ended.

Horizontal angles were measured using a compass which would provide a magnetic bearing from which deflections could be measured. This type of instrument was later improved with more carefully scribed discs providing better angular resolution, as well as through mounting telescopes with reticles for more precise sighting atop the disc. Additionally, levels and calibrated circles allowing measurement of vertical angles were added.

The simplest method for measuring height is with an altimeter — basically a barometer — using air pressure as an indication of height, but surveying requires greater precision. A variety of means, such as precise levels, have been developed to do this. Levels are calibrated to provide a precise plane from which differentials in height between the instrument and the point in question can be measured, typically through the use of a vertical measuring rod.

With the triangulation method, one first needs to know the horizontal distance to the object. The height of an object can be determined by measuring the angle between the horizontal plane and the line through that point at a known distance and the top of the object. In order to determine the height of a mountain, one should do this from the sea level, but here the distances can be too great and the mountain may not be visible. So it is done in steps, first determining the position of one point, then moving to that point and doing a relative measurement, and so on until the mountain top is reached.

 

14.5 Ответь на вопросы:


1. What surveying instruments do you know?

2. What scientific knowledge do surveyors use for surveying?

3. What associated services does land surveying include?

4. Why has surveying always been important in the development of human environment?

5. What modem uses of surveying do you know?

6. How can a surveyor measure a slope?

7. How was a compass improved?

8. Why are levels calibrated?

9. How is the height of a mountain determined?


14.6 Найди в тексте определения данных понятий:


1. surveying;

2. chains;

3. a compass;

4. an altimeter;

5. a levelling instrument;

6. calibrated circles;

7. a triangulation method.


14.7 Прочитай, переведи текст LAND SURVEYING и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:

1. Monuments are the marks on the ground that define location. Pegs are commonly used to mark boundary corners. Small pegs in the ground and steel rods are used as instrument locations and reference marks, commonly called survey control. Marks should be durable and long lasting, stable so the marks do not move over time, safe from disturbance and safe to work at. The aim is to provide sufficient marks so some marks will remain for future re­establishment of boundaries. Examples of typical man-made monuments are steel rods, pipes or bars with plastic, aluminum or brass caps containing descriptive markings and often bearing the license number of the surveyor responsible for the establishment of such. The material and marking used on monuments placed to mark boundary corners are often subject to state laws/statutes.

2. The aim of cadastral surveys is to re-establish and mark the comers of original land boundaries. The first stage is to research relevant records such as land titles (deeds), survey monumentation (marks on the ground) and any public or private records that provide relevant data. The job of a boundary surveyor retracing a deed or prior survey is to locate such monuments and verify their correct position. Overtime, development, vandalism and acts of nature often wreak havoc on monuments, so the boundary surveyor is often forced to consider other evidence such as fence locations, woodlines, monuments on the neighboring property, parole evidence and other evidence.

3. Many properties have considerable problems with regards to improper bounding, miscalculations in past surveys, titles, and others. Also many properties are created from multiple divisions of a larger piece over the course of years, and with every additional division the risk of miscalculation increases. The result can be abutting properties not coinciding with adjacent parcels, resulting in gaps and overlaps. The art comes in when a surveyor must solve a puzzle using pieces that do not exactly fit together. In these cases the solution is based upon the research of the surveyor, and following established procedures for resolving discrepancies.

4. A total station or GPS (Global Positioning System) is set-up over survey marks which were placed as part of a previous survey, or newly placed marks. The datum is established by measuring between points on a previous survey and a rotation is applied to orientate the new survey to correspond with the previous survey or a standard map grid. The data are analysed and comparisons are made with the existing records to determine evidence which can be used to establish boundary positions. The distance of lines between the boundary corners and total station positions are calculated and used to set out and mark the corners in the field. Checks are made by measuring directly between peg places using a flexible tape. Subdivision of land generally requires that the external boundary is re-established and marked using pegs, and the new internal boundaries are then marked. A plat (survey plan) and description (depending on local and state requirements) are compiled, the final report is lodged with the appropriate government office (often required by law), and copies are provided to the client.

14.8 Закончи предложения:


1. A boundary surveyor’s job is

a) to mark the comers of the land boundaries desired by a customer.

b) to provide some relevant data.

c) to locate marks on the ground.

2. Pegs are used to

a) verify the boundaries.

b) locate boundaries.

c) make work safe.

3. To establish boundary positions

a) evidence of the existing records is used.

b) the distance between points on a previous survey is measured.

c) the global positioning system is set up.

4. Checks are made by

a) marking the corners in the field.

b) measuring the distance between pegs.

c) subdividing land.

5. Many properties have problems regarding

a) abutting them.

b) multiple divisions of a land piece.

c) improper calculations.


14.9 Прочитай, переведи текст SURVEYING EQUIPMENT и заполни пропуски:

1. The height of the staff where the level beam crosses the staff is shown on a digital display. This type of level removes interpolation of graduation by a person, thus removing a source of error and increasing accuracy.

2. An automatic level, self-levelling level or builder’s auto level, includes an internal compensator mechanism (a swinging prism) that, when set close to level, automatically removes any remaining variation from level.

3. A modem theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes — the horizontal or tmnnion, and the vertical axis.

4. Measurement generally starts from a benchmark with known height determined by a previous survey, or an arbitrary point with an assumed height.

5. Half of the difference between the two positions is called the index error.

6. It is set up on a tripod and, depending on the type, either roughly or accurately set to a levelled condition using levelling screws. The operator looks through the eyepiece of the telescope while an assistant holds a tape measure or graduated staff vertical at the point under measurement.

7. Before its use, a l heodolite must be placed precisely and vertically over the point lo be measured — centering — and its vertical axis aligned with local gravity — levelling.

8. The optical axis of the telescope, called the sight axis and defined by the optical center of the objective and the center of the crosshairs in its focal plane, must similarly be perpendicular to the horizontal axis.

9. Their existence is taken into account in the choice of the measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results.

 

As late as the 1990s the basic tools used in planar surveying were a tape measure, a theodolite and a level.

A theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles. It is a key tool in surveying and engineering work, particularly on inaccessible ground, but theodolites have been adapted for other specialized purposes in fields like meteorology and rocket launch technology. _. When the telescope is pointed at a desired object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically on the scale of arcseconds.

Both axes of a theodolite are equipped with graduated circles that can be read out through magnifying lenses. The vertical circle should read 90° when the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° when the instmment is in its second position, that is, turned over or plunged. _.

The horizontal and vertical axes of a theodolite must be perpendicular. The condition where they deviate from perpendicularity and the amount by which they do is referred to as a horizontal axis error. _.

Any deviation from perpendicularity is the collimation error.

A horizontal axis error, a collimation error, and an index error are regularly determined by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment at the factory in case they grow large. _.

A theodolite is mounted on its tripod head by means of a forced centering plate containing four thumbscrews, or in some modern theodolites, three, for rapid leveling. _.

The level instrument is an optical instrument used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels. _.

The instrument and staff are used to gather and/or transfer elevations (levels) during site surveys or building construction. _.

_. This reduces the need to set the instrument truly level, as with a dumpy or tilting level. Self-levelling instruments are the preferred instrument on building sites, construction and surveying due to ease of use and rapid setup time.

A digital electronic level is also set level on a tripod and reads a bar-coded staff using electronic laser methods. _.

  PASSIVE VOICE

 

The Passive употребляется для выражения:

 

Ø действия, которое было совершено неизвестным, неважным или ясным из контекста лицом: Mrs. Archer’s ruby ring was stolen from her house last night.

Ø действия более важного, чем лицо, совершающее действие. в обзорах новостей, статьях, официальных записях, инструкций, рекламы:

Two teenagers were seriously injured in a car accident last night.

Ø более вежливого высказывания:

My new blouse is ruined. Вместо: You’ve ruined my blouse.

 

В Passive обычно не употребляются The Present Perfect Continuous, The Future Continuous, The Past Perfect Continuous и The Future Perfect Continuous.

В разговорной речи часто заменяют to be на to get:

Mary got run over by a car while she was crossing the street.

 

Present Simple am/is/are v3 Future Simple will be v3
Present Continuous am/is/are being v3 Future Perfect will have been v3
Past Simple was/were v3 Present Infinitive (to) be v3
Past Continuous was/were being v3 Perfect infinitive (to) have v3
Present Perfect have/has been v3 Continuous Infinitive being v3
Past Perfect had been v3 Modals modal be v3

 

 

Для изменения предложения из active в passive:

 

Ø дополнение становится подлежащим

Ø сказуемое остается в том же времени

Ø перед дополнение в passive (бывшее подлежащее active) ставится by или оно опускается

Ø если за сказуемым стоит дополнение предложение может быть изменено в passive:

Peter feeds the cows. –> The cows are fed by Peter.

Ø by + дополнение употребляется, чтобы сказать кто или что совершает действие. With + инструмент/ материал/ ингредиент:

A kite was made by John. It was made with paper, paint & string.

Ø если подлежащее в passive: people, one, someone, somebody, they, he, etc., дополнение обычно опускается:

People eat a lot of junk food nowadays. -> A lot of junk food is eaten nowadays.

Ø дополнения me, you, him, etc. в active становятся подлежащими I, you, he, etc. в passive:

They rescued me. -> I was rescued.

Ø с глаголами bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, throw, write, award, hand, sell, owe, grant, allow, feed, pass, post, read, take, offer, give, pay и lend можно сделать два разных предложения в passive: Jessica showed Rod some photos. -> Rod was shown some photos by Jessica.(этот вариант предпочтительнее)/Some photos were shown to Rod by Jessica.

Ø если в active за сказуемым следует предлог, то в passive он сохраняется:

Jane looks after the baby. -> The baby is looked after by Jane.

Ø вопросы в passive строятся по схеме Who/What … by?:

Who was the camera invented by? What was the explosion caused by?

 

С глаголами think, believe, say, report, know, expect, consider, understand, etc. можно личные и безличные формы в passive:

 

Active Passive безличный Passive личный
People say that he has lost his job. It is said he has lost his job. He is said to have lost his job.
People know that she works hard. It is known she works hard. She is known to work hard.
People think he left the country last night. It is thought he left the country last night. He is thought to have left the country last night.

 

Конструкция have something done используется, чтобы сказать, что кто-то что-то делает для нас:Sandra is having her car repaired at the moment.

Ø Вопросы и отрицания образуются при помощи do/does/did:

Do you have your hair cut every month? Did she have the house cleaned?

Ø Have something done используется чтобы сказать, что произошло что-то неприятное:

Mary had her purse stolen yesterday.

Get можно употреблять вместо have в неформальном общении:

We must get the fridge repaired soon.

14.A Переделай предложения в страдательный залог:

 


1. He should accomplish some more surveys.

2. I object to her using my theodolite.

3. Does she train all the new staff?

4. We will have finished the project by next Friday.

5. What did they open the safe with?

6. You must inform the staff about the rules of the company.

7. She had made all the beds.

8. Has Ivan written an instruction for you?

9. Konstantin was feeding the car.

10. She locked all the doors before she went on weekends.


 

14.B Переделай предложения, используя have something done:


1. Dima’s car will be taken to the garage tomorrow.

2. Jana’s leveling instrument was stolen last night.

3. Pasha’s measuring instrument wasn’t burnt in a fire.

4. The new lock will be fitted on Monday.

5. His boundary corner has just been stolen.

6. Their office is decorated every year.

7. Our equipment weren’t cleaned by our cleaner this morning.

8. Kristina’s cadastral survey is going to be made next month.

9. My salary is deposited in my bank account every month.

10. Our construction layout survey is shown on plans.



 

 

MODULE15 FOUNDTIONS OF BUILDINGS

15.1 Соспоставь синонимы:

 

1. rigid 2. expand A. bearing capacity B. transfer
3. column 4. reinforced concrete layer C. shrinkage D. stiff
5. subsidence 6. transmit E. pile F. heave
7. base 8. ground G. swell H. raft
9. load capacity 10. a supporting structure I. foundation J. settlement
11. compression 12. bulging out K. soil L. pier

 

15.2 Составь логичные по смыслу выражения:

 

1. scour 2. place A. a pile B. a concrete pad
3. embed 4. pour C. under stress D. the ground
5. form 6. transfer E. a beam F. settlement
7. stabilize 8. experience G. concrete in ayers H. cracks
9. drive 10. distort I. a foundation J. a load

 

15.3 Переведи на русский и английский языки:


1. Field tests provide the most reliable relationship between the axial load applied to а (фундамент глубокого заложения) and the resulting axial movement. 2. Indications of (неравномерная осадка) are vertical distortion or cracking of masonry walls, warped interior and exterior openings, sloped floors, and sticking doors and windows. 3. Minor (трещины) are structurally harmful only if long-term moisture leakage through the (трещины) adversely affects building elements. 4. If the foundation embedment into the ground is not sufficient to account for erosion and (размыв) that may occur over the life of the building, the building is vulnerable to collapse under design flood and wind conditions. 5. A deep foundation is used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak (грунтовый слой) to a stronger and deeper (грунто­вый слой). 6. Tall buildings often rest on many small (кессон­ные сваи). 7. А (фундамент на естественном основании) supports the weight (load) from the exterior or foundation walls. 8. In construction sites where settlement is not a problem, (фун­даменты мелкого заложения) provide the most economical foundation systems. 9. The ultimate objective of any (забитая свая) is to carry some kind of load coming from a variety of sources. 10. The two most important design requirements for building structures are the strength and (жесткость).



15.4 Переведи на русский язык:


1. a. The university has been famous since its foundation.

b. The workers are laying the foundation of a new building.

c. This foundation provides money for medical research.

2. a. They usually pile the boxes on the table.

b. There was a neat pile of books in the comer of the room.

c. The pile was driven into the ground.

3. a. The sweater will shrink when washed.

b. A bad harvest caused the farmer’s income to shrink.

c. These processes cause the concrete to shrink slightly.

4. a. The two sides have at last reached a settlement.

b. Settlement is the common cause of foundation problems.

c. There are some empty lands awaiting settlement.

5. a. This type of panels does not transfer vertical loads.

b. She asked for a transfer to the Moscow office.

c. The load transfer takes place from the slabs to the beams.


 

15.5 Прочитай, письменно переведи и ответь на вопросы:


1. What is a foundation?

2. What types of foundations do you know?

3. What is a shallow foundation?

4. What types of shallow foundations do





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