en Ч deepen углубить, lighten осветить, strengthen усилить
fy Ч classify классифицировать, electrify электризо≠вать, specify определить
ize Ч organize организовать, characterize характери≠зовать, mechanize механизировать
ate Ч indicate указать, activate активизировать
со Ч cooperate сотрудничать
de Ч decode расшифровать, decompose разложитьс€
dis Ч disappear исчезнуть
in Ч input вводить
inter Ч interact взаимодействовать, interchange взаимозамен€ть
over Ч overheat перегревать, overhear подслушивать
re Ч reconstruct восстановить, rewrite переписать
Ќаиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных.
-able Ч comfortable удобный
-al Ч natural естественный, cultural культурный, territorial территориальный
-ant Ч distant отдаленный, resistant стойкий
-ent Ч dependent зависимый, different различный
-ful Ч careful осторожный, useful полезный, powerful мощный
-ible Ч possible возможный, visible видимый
-ic Ч atomic атомный, historic исторический
-ive Ч inventive изобретательный, effective эффектив≠ный
-less Ч hopeless безнадежный, useless бесполезный, homeless бездомный
-ous Ч famous известный, dangerous опасный, various различный
-у Ч rainy дождливый, unny солнечный, dirty гр€з≠ный
un Ч unhappy несчастный, unable неспособный, uncomfortable неудобный
in Ч independent независимый, indirect косвенный, invisible невидимый
im Ч impossible невозможный, imperfect несовершен≠ный
ir Ч irregular нерегул€рный, irrational иррациональ≠ный
il Ч illegal незаконный, illimitable неограниченный
non Ч non-ferrous цветной
онверсией называетс€ совпадение формы и произ≠ношени€ слов, относ€щихс€ к различным част€м речи: water Ч вода (существительное), to water Ч поли≠вать (глагол);
limit Ч предел (существительное), to limit Ч огра≠ничивать (глагол);
hand Ч рука (существительное), to hand Ч вру≠чать (глагол) и т.д.
10.A ќбразуй новые слова с помо≠щью суффиксов и префиксов, переведи их:
to teach обучать Ч teacher учитель
to write Ц
to weld Ц
to produce производить Ч production производство
to discuss Ц
to include Ц
to move двигать(с€) Ч movement движение
to develop Ч
to replace Ч
to build строить Ч building здание
to meet Ч
to write Ч
happy счастливый Ч happiness счастье
10.B ѕрочитай следующие существи≠тельные, укажи, от каких слов они образованы, определи суффиксы: pressure, construction, direction, concentration, collection, necessity, agreement, difference, drawing.
10.C »спользу€ известные суф≠фиксы и префиксы, образуй существительные от следующих слов и переведи их на русский €зык:
1. to sail, to connect, to educate, to build, to create;
2. friend, leader, fellow;
3. dark, weak, cold, bright, free.
10.D ќбразуй прилагательные от сле≠дующих слов, использу€ суффиксы и префиксы, и переведи их на русский €зык: hope, truth, beauty, rain, peace, help, colour, power, joy, care, use.
‘ункции и перевод слова ONE
1. —лово one, если оно стоит перед личной формой глагола, €вл€етс€ формальным подлежащим неопре≠деленно-личного предложени€. ¬ таких предложени€х one на русский €зык не переводитс€:
One must know for certain what to do.
Ќужно точно знать, что делать.
2. —лово one (мн. ч. ones) может употребл€тьс€ как заменитель ранее упом€нутого исчисл€емого существи≠тельного. ¬ этом случае one переводитс€ словом, кото≠рое замен€ет предмет, упом€нутый ранее:
I have lost ту pen. I must buy one.
я потер€л ручку. я должен купить ручку.
Here are some pens. Which ones would you like to buy?
¬от несколько ручек. акие (ручки) вы хотели бы купить?
ѕеред one (ones) может сто€ть артикль the one или определ€ющие местоимени€ this one, another one, the blue ones. ¬ этом случае на русский €зык one обычно не переводитс€:
I donТt like this pen, show me another one.
ћне не нравитс€ эта ручка, покажите мне другую.
What pens will you buy? Ч The blue ones.
акие ручки вы купите? Ч —иние ручки.
—лово one в прит€жательном падеже переводитс€ на русский €зык местоимением свой, сво€, свое.
One should always keep oneТs word. Ќадо всегда дер≠жать свое слово,
One часто употребл€етс€ в сочетании с модальными глаголами:
One should be careful when working with chemical substances.
Ќужно быть осторожным при работе с химически≠ми веществами.
One may work in this laboratory only observing certain rules.
¬ этой лаборатории можно работать только при соблюдении определенных правил.
‘ункции и перевод местоимени€ THAT
That (those) €вл€етс€ указательным местоимением и переводитс€ как тот, та, то, те или этот, эта, это, эти:
That book was published long ago.
“а книга была опубликована давно.
1. That в функции подлежащего или дополнени€ переводитс€ как это:
That is not right. We understood that.
Ёто не правильно. ћы пон€ли это.
2. That (those) как заместитель ранее упом€нутого существительного либо переводитс€ этим существи≠тельным, либо совсем не переводитс€:
The height of this new house is larger than that of the old one.
¬ысота этого нового дома больше, чем (высота) ста≠рого.
3. That в качестве относительного местоимени€ присоедин€ет определительные придаточные предло≠жени€, замен€ет which, who, whom и переводитс€ ко≠торый, котора€, которое, которые:
The man that is sitting at the table is our teacher.
„еловек, который сидит за столом, наш учитель.
The parts that are used in this machine must be hardened.
ƒетали, которые используютс€ в этой машине, дол≠жны быть закалены.
4. That в качестве союза присоедин€ет дополнитель≠ные придаточные предложени€ и переводитс€ что:
Ќе said that he would finish his report tomorrow.
ќн сказал, что закончит свой доклад завтра.
5. ¬ качестве союза, присоедин€ющего придаточ≠ные предложени€ подлежащие и сказуемые, that пе≠реводитс€, как то, что:
That he refused any help didnТt surprise anybody.
To, что он отказалс€ от любой помощи, никого не удивило.
That в качестве союза, ввод€щего обсто€тельствен≠ное придаточное предложение цели, обычно в сочета≠нии с so или in order, переводитс€ как дл€ того что≠бы или чтобы:
Enough time was given so that (in order that) everyone could get ready for the examination.
Ѕыло дано достаточно времени дл€ того, чтобы все смогли подготовитьс€ к экзамену.
6. That в сочетании с наречием now, переводитс€ как теперь, когда:
Now, that I have passed my examinations, IТm free. “еперь, когда € сдал экзамены, € свободен.
10.E ѕереведи следующие предло≠жени€, обраща€ внимание на значени€ слов one (ones):
1. These shoes are too large; show me smaller ones, please.
2. One should be very attentive when crossing the street.
3. One never knows the result of the experiment.
4. This computer is more powerful than the one we need.
5. This antenna allows one to receive very weak signals.
6. One can expect better weather in two days.
7. We want to buy a big TV for the sitting room and a smaller one for the kitchen.
8. One must study hard to pass the examinations.
9. That is clear without explanation.
10.The methods they use are not the ones that lead to success.
11.The more one reads, the more one knows.
12.This dictionary is too small; IТll need a bigger one.
10.F ѕереведи следующие предложени€, обраща€ внимание на значени€ слов that (those):
1. They knew that the experiment was a failure.
2. That was the work that they continued to do.
3. That he wanted to stay at his friends a little more wasnТt a news.
4. She said that she wouldnТt buy the dress that she liked.
5. The problem is that they havenТt recorded the results of experiment.
6. The question that was discussed at the meeting yesterday is very important.
7. Those buildings belong to our University.
8. We didnТt expect that all those things were so important.
9. What was that he wanted?
10. The properties of steel are different from those of iron.
11. The advice that you gave me is very important.
12. The properties of this material are the same as those of that one.
11.1 —опоставь синонимы:
|1. manufacture||2. bar||a) prefabrication||b) fabricate|
|3. facing||4. framework||c) bolt||d) welding|
|5. form||6. vault||e) alignment||f) framing|
|7. screw||8. line arrangement||g) shape||h) rod|
|9. preassembly||10. soldering||i) cladding||j) span|
11.2 —оставь выражение, логичное по смыслу:
|1. glue||2. exceed||a) to a centre line of a wall||b) a column to the steel channel|
|3. brace||4. align||c) a concrete slab on the ground||d) wood sheets together|
|5. install||6. weld||e) a distance of 1 metre||f) angles to connecting plates|
|7. span||8. cast||g) the length of the beam||h) a house|
|9. bolt||10. prefabricate||i) a girder to support smaller beams||j) masonry walls during construction|
11.3 ѕереведи на русский и на английский €зыки:
1. There is minimal friction between the bolt and the wood in the (болтовое соединение). 2. With the panels made of (сборный железобетон), buildings up to 5 floors high can be constructed without columns or beams. 3. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use of dimensional (дерев€нные стойки) and (обрешетина) as bracing. 4. ј (швеллер) is widely used in building practice as a beam. 5. Steel is used for (каркасна€ конструкци€) because it has high tensile and compressive strength. 6. (ƒерев€нна€ балочно-стоечна€ конструкци€) of residential and commercial buildings increased in the twentieth century and continues to be the standard building form. 7. Steel (уголки) tie the frame together and also provide a place to fix the top of the cladding. 8. (ѕролет) is the clear distance between the supports of an arch, beam of (стро-пильна€ ферма). 9. A concrete (плита перекрыти€) was put in place. 10. (ћонолитный бетон) is strong, durable, stable, readily available and relatively economic in terms of construction and life time maintenance. 11. The thickness of (фанера) used should not be less than 6 mm in this type of shutter. 12. The roof consists of a waterproof covering and a roof structure, which is made of timber (опорна€ балка) and wood-wool slabs.
11.4 ѕрочитай и письменно переведи текст STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS:
The structures of buildings are mostly skeleton frames of various types. New domestic housing in many parts of the world today is commonly made from timber-framed construction. Wood products are becoming a bigger part of the construction industry. They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic materials. In buildings made of other materials, wood is still found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction, in interior doors and their frames, and as exterior cladding.
Laminated veneer lumber functions as beams to provide support over large spans, such as removed support walls and places where dimensional lumber is not sufficient, and also in areas where a heavy load is bearing from a floor, wall or roof above on a short span. Wood I-joists are used for floor joists on upper floors. They are engineered for long spans and are doubled up in places where a wall will be aligned over them. Glued laminated beams are created by glueing the faces together to create beams. By glueing multiple, common sized pieces of lumber together act as one larger piece of lumber. Manufactured trusses are used in home construction as a pre-fabricated replacement for roof rafters and ceiling joists. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use of lumber struts and purlins as bracing.
Steel is one of the major structural materials in buildings. It is a strong and stiff material. It can be quickly fabricated and erected. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar (or open web) joist, a standard truss made with angles for the top and bottom chords, joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod. It is used almost exclusively to support roofs and can span up to 45 metres. The standard rolled shapes are frequently used as beams and columns, the wide flange, or W shape, being the most common. Where steel beams support concrete floor slabs poured onto a metal deck, they can be made to act compositely with the concrete.
Steel columns are joined to foundations with base plates welded to the columns and held by anchor bolts embedded in the concrete. The erection of steel frames at the building site can proceed very rapidly, because all the pieces can be handled by cranes and all the bolted connections can be made swiftly by workers with hand-held wrenches.
Reinforced concrete is also a major structural material in buildings. In situ concrete is used for foundations and for structural skeleton frames. The oldest framing system is the beam and girder system, whose form was derived from wood and steel construction: slabs rest on beams, beams rest on girders, and girders rest on columns in a regular pattern. This system needs much handmade timber formwork, and in economies where labour is expensive other systems are employed. One is the pan joist system, a standardized beam and girder system of constant depth formed with prefabricated sheet-metal forms. The simplest and most economical floor system is the flat plate where a plain floor slab rests on columns spaced apart. If the span is larger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. Concrete columns are of rectangular or circular profile and are cast in plywood or metal forms. The reinforcing steel never exceeds 8 percent of the cross-sectional area to guard against catastrophic brittle failure in case of accidental overloading.
Precast concrete structural members are fabricated under controlled conditions in a factory. Members that span floors and roofs are usually pretensioned, another prestressing technique, which is similar in principle to post-tensioning. Precast prestressed floor elements are made in a number of configurations. These include beams of rectangular cross section, hollow floor slabs, and single- and double-stem T shapes. Precast concrete columns are not usually prestressed and have projecting shelves to receive floor members. At the building site, precast members are joined together by a number of methods, including welding together metal connectors cast into them or pouring a layer of in situ concrete on top of floor members, bonding them together. Precast prestressed construction is widely used, and it is the dominant form of construction in Russia and Eastern Europe.
11.5 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. What parts of a building can be made from wood?
2. What are I-joists used for?
3. What advantages do manufactured trusses have?
4. Why is steel one of the major structural materials?
5. What structural shapes do you know?
6. What is in situ concrete used for?
7. What is the oldest framing system?
8. What is pretensioning?
9. What is the dominant form of construction in Russia?
11.6 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic materials. What does the pronoun they refer to?
2. They are engineered for long spans and are doubled up in places where a wall will be aligned over them. What does the pronoun they refer to?
3. It is a strong and stiff material. What does the pronoun it refer to?
4. It can be quickly fabricated and erected. What does the pronoun it refer to?
5. It is used almost exclusively to support roofs What does the pronoun it refer to?
6. they can be made to act compositely with the concrete. What does the pronoun they refer to?
7. These include beams of rectangular cross section, hollow floor slabs, and single- and double-stem T shapes. What does the pronoun these refer to?
11.7 ѕрочитай, переведи текст BEAMS и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
1. Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e. loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members.
2. A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.
3. Internally, beams experience compressive, tensile and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Typically, under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is slightly reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same original beam length at the bottom of the beam is slightly stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, and so is under tension. Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress.
4. Most beams in reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but the most efficient cross section is a universal beam. A universal beam is only the most efficient shape in one direction of bending: up and down looking at the profile as an I. If the beam is bent side to side, it functions as an H where it is less efficient. The most efficient shape for both directions in 2D is a box (a square shell), however the most efficient shape for bending in any direction is a cylindrical shell or tube. Efficiency means that for the same cross sectional area (volume of beam per length) subjected to the same loading conditions, the beam deflects less. Other shapes, like L (angles), — (channels) or tubes, are also used in construction when there are special requirements.
5. Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross- section), their length, and their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel, reinforced concrete or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the I- beam or wide-flange beam (also known as a universal beam or, for stouter sections, a universal column). This is used in steel- frame buildings and bridges. Other common beam profiles are the —-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the angle.
6. There are some reinforced concrete beams that are entirely in compression. These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, and are fabricated to produce a compression more than the expected tension under loading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched while the beam is cast over them. Then, when the concrete has begun to cure, the tendons are released and the beam is immediately under eccentric axial loads. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam. They are commonly used on highway bridges.
7. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces (internal forces of the beam and the forces that are imposed on the beam support) include the moment distribution method, the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method.
11.8 —опоставь данные высказывани€ с соответствующими абзацами из текста:
1. Beam profiles.
2. Beam forces.
3. A bending moment.
4. Beam shapes.
5. The stresses experienced by a beam.
6. The loads carried by a beam.
7. Prestressed concrete beams.
11.9 ѕрочитай, переведи текст FRAMING CONSTRUCTION и заполни пропуски:
1. A second top plate usually laps the first plate at the comers and partition intersections and, when nailed in place, provides an additional tie to the framed walls.
2. A multi ple-stud post made up of at least three studs is generally used at exterior comers and intersections to secure a good tie between adjoining walls and to provide nailing support for the interior finish and exterior sheathing.
3. Studs, wall plates and lintels serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall.
4. Lintels are usually constructed of two pieces of lumber separated with spacers to the width of the studs and nailed together to form a single unit.
5. Nailing supportfor the edges of the ceiling is required at the junction of the wall and ceiling where partitions run parallel to the ceiling joists.
6. Studs, wall plates and lintels serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floors, ceiling and roof.
7. They are supported on a bottom plate or foundation sill and in turn support the top plate. Interior partitions supporting floor, ceiling or roof loads are called loadbearing walls; others are called non-loadbearing or simply partitions. Interior loadbearing walls are framed in the same way as exterior walls.
8. There are three historically common methods of framing a house.
9. The top and bottom plates are end-nailed to each stud with two nails.
10. Once the assembled sections are plumbed, they are nailed together at the corners and intersections.
Framing is a building technique based on structural members which provide a stable frame to which interior and exterior wall coverings are attached and covered by a roof comprising horizontal ceiling joists and sloping rafters (together forming a truss structure) or manufactured pre-fabricated roof trusses Ч all of which are covered by various sheathing materials to give weather resistance.
Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls. _. The platforms may be the boxed structure of a ceiling and roof, or the ceiling and floor joists of the storey above. _.
Post and beam framing is now used in bam construction.
Balloon framing using a technique suspending floors from the walls was common until the late 1940s, but since that time platform framing has become the predominant form of house construction.
Platform framing often forms wall sections horizontally on the sub-floor prior to erection, easing positioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower. _. Studs are at least doubled at openings, the jack stud being cut to receive the lintels (headers) that are placed and end-nailed through the outer studs.
Wall sheathing, usually a plywood or other laminate, is usually applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold. _. Corners and intersections, however, must be framed with at least two studs. _.
Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions. _.
Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. _.
Lintels (headers) are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. _. The preferable spacer material is rigid insulation.
The complete wall sections are then raised and put in place, temporary braces added and the bottom plates nailed through the subfloor to the floor framing members. _.A strip of polyethylene is often placed between the interior walls and the exterior wall, and above the first top plate of interior walls before the second top plate is applied to attain continuity of the air barrier when polyethylene is serving this function. _.
11.10 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. What members does wall framing include?
2. What is post and beam framing characterized by?
3. What does platform framing consist in?
4. What supports the upper floors, ceiling and roof?
5. What are loadbearing and non-loadbearing walls?
6. When are the assembled sections nailed together?
|THE PRESENT TENSES|
The Present Simple употребл€етс€ дл€ выражени€:
Ø обычного, повтор€ющегос€ действи€ в насто€щем: They go to the country every weekend.
Ø действи€, относ€щегос€ к насто€щему времени в широком смысле слова: I work as a teacher.
Ø общеизвестных истин: It never snows in Africa.
Ø будущего действи€ с глаголами движени€ come, go, leave, start, arrive: The train starts in half an hour.
Ø инструкций, комментариев, повествовани€, обзоров: First you cross the street, then turn left.
Ø последовательности действи€: He comes home, turns the TV on & sits in the chair.
Ø расписаний и программ: The plain arrives at 7.45.
»ндикаторы: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, every day/week/etc., on Mondays/Tuesdays/etc., in the morning/ afternoon/ evening, at night/the weekend, etc.
«апомни: после [f], [p], [k], [t] окончание звучит как [s], после [m], [l], [d], [b], [g], [v], [n], ing и после гласных (как в play) окончание звучит как [z], а после [z], [s], [ks], g, sh, ch, tch окончание Цes [iz].
|I You We They||V1||I You We They||donТt V1||Do||I you we they||V1?|
|He She It||V1+s/es||He She It||doesnТt V1||Does||he she it||V1?|
Ø »ндикаторы сто€т ѕ≈–≈ƒ основным глаголом, но ѕќ—Ћ≈ глагола to be, to do, to have и модальных глаголов. You must always behave yourself at school.
Ø √лаголы rarely, seldom и never Ќ» ќ√ƒј не используютс€ с not. Emily never
not watches horror films.
Ø »ндикаторы всегда сто€т ѕ≈–≈ƒ вспомогательными глаголами: to be, to do, to have в коротких ответах. Do you buy expensive clothes? No, I never do.
The Present Continuous употребл€етс€ дл€ выражени€:
Ø длительного действи€, совершающегос€ в момент речи: The children are watching TV.
Ø длительного действи€, совершающегос€ в насто€щий период времени (в широком смысле): Now we are studying the Present Continuous Tense.
Ø будущего действи€, главным образом, с глаголами движени€ come, leave, start, go, arrive и т.д.: They are leaving in a few days.
Ø запланированного действи€, когда место и врем€ известны: We are moving the new flat on Saturday next week.
Ø посто€нного процесса или раздражени€. ¬ этих случа€х часто употребл€ютс€ наречи€ always, constantly, ever: The sun is constantly shining there. You are always interrupting me.
Ø мен€ющихс€ или развивающихс€ ситуаций: The climate is getting warmer every year.
»ндикаторы: now, at the moment, these days, at present, tonight, nowadays, still, etc.
|I||am Ving||I||am not Ving||Am||I||Ving?|
|He She It||is Ving||He She It||isnТt Ving||Is||he she it||Ving?|
|You We They||are Ving||You We They||arenТt Ving||Are||you we they||Ving?|
Ø после [e], то оно опускаетс€ перед суффиксом Ц ing: write -> writing
Ø если слово оканчиваетс€ на Цl или на согласную, перед которой стоит ”ƒј–Ќјя гласна€, то согласна€ удваиваетс€: get -> getting
Ø слова die, lie, tie, то они образуютс€ следующим образом: dying, lying, tying
¬ Continuous не употребл€ютс€ глаголы, выражающие:
Ø предпочтени€: like, love, hate, dislike, enjoy, prefer, etc.: Cathy likes romantic films.
Ø чувственно-визуальное воспри€тие: believe, know, notice, remember, forget, recognise, understand, realise, seem, think, etc.: I donТt believe a world heТs saying.; see, hear, feel, taste, look, smell, sound. — этими глаголами часто употребл€ютс€ модальные глаголы can или could, когда действие совершаетс€ в момент речи: The soup tastes delicious. John must be in the attic. I can hear his footsteps.
и некоторые другие глаголы: be, contain, fit, include, matter, need, belong, cost, owe, mean, own, appear, want, have = possess, etc.: This book is mine. It belongs to me.
The Present Perfect употребл€етс€ дл€ выражени€ действи€, которое:
Ø началось в прошлом и продолжаетс€ в насто€щем. — глаголами: have, like, know, be, etc. употребл€ютс€ индикаторы for и since: They have been friends for twenty years.
Ø только что закончилось и результат виден в насто€щем: She has picked a lot of apples.
Ø произошло в неопределенный момент в прошлом. “очное врем€ нам неважно или не упоминаетс€ в предложении. Ќас интересует само действие: He has broken his arm. Peter has been to Paris four times.
Ø которое произошло в определенный момент в прошлом: today, this morning/afternoon/week/month/year, etc., но еще не закончено: She has received three taxes this month.
»ндикаторы: already, yet, just, always, ever, never, so far.
|I You We They||have V3/ed||I You We They||havenТt V3/ed||Have||I you we they||V3/ed?|
|He She It||has V3/ed||He She It||hasnТt V3/ed||Has||he she it||V3/ed?|
The Present Perfect Continuous употребл€етс€ дл€ выражени€:
Ø длительности действи€, произошедшем в прошлом и продолжающегос€ до насто€щего: Sarah has been picking vegetables for two hours.
Ø действи€, которое началось и закончилось в прошлом, но длилось какое-то врем€, а результат виден в насто€щем: He is dirty. He has been playing football.
Ø дл€ выражени€ гнева, раздражени€: Who has been reading my business papers?
Ø с глаголами feel, live, work и teach можно употребл€ть и present perfect и perfect continuous: He has felt/has been feeling unwell all morning.
»ндикаторы: for, since, all morning/day/week/etc.
|I You We They||have been Ving||I You We They||havenТt been Ving||Have||I you we they||been Ving?|
|He She It||has been Ving||He She It||hasnТt been Ving||Has||he she it||been Ving?|
11.A ¬ыбери наиболее подход€щий вариант:
1. Dima has known Anya for/ since two months.
2. How long ago/ How long have you had your car?
3. She has yet/ just left for America.
4. We are reporting in a conference next week/ last week.
5. He sometimes/ ever fabricates lumber struts with his friends themselves.
6. УHow often do you glue the wallpapers?Ф УI seldom/ usually/ never glue it once a year.Ф
11.B ¬ыбери подход€щий вариант have been living / always / have just finished / never / are you doing / already:
1. Plumbers always install a sewerage system in summer. 2. Building construction has never won a tender. 3. Nizhnevartovsk Stroy Detal already designed fourty five buildings. 4. "What are doing at the moment?" "I'm handing wall-paper". 6. "What time do you finish work?" "Actually, I have just finished". 7. "Are you new here?" "No. I have been working here for five years".
11.C –аскрой скобки:
1. УThereТs a smell coming from the lab.Ф УYes, I (rabble) in-suit concrete.Ф
2. У(you/ ever/ go) to Nadim?Ф УNo, I havenТt.Ф
3. УAre you new to this company?Ф УNo. I (work) in this company for three years.Ф
4. УIs Mr. Timofeev free yet?Ф УNo, he (be) in a meeting at the moment.Ф
5. УWhere is Sasha?Ф УHe (do) his homework in his bedroom.Ф
11.D «аполни пропуски подход€щими по смыслу словами:
1. "Is this your levelling instrument?" "Yes! I ___ for it all morning. Where was it?"
2. I ___ this object presentation before." "Well, I haven't. Do you mind watching it again?"
3. Head foreman ___ very sad. What's wrong with him?" "Oh, he got some bad news about renovation."
4. Jim's results of examination in heat power engineering was wonderful." "Well, he ___ a lot recently."
5. Do you live in Megion?" "No, I work in Megion, but I ___ in Nizhnevartovsk."
11.E »справь ошибки:
1. They are usually staring work at 9 o'clock.
2. Look! That man is a surveyor.
3. He has been is building construction company tomorrow.
4. Engineer constructs a building so far.
5. The construction company organize a big party every year.
6. The building is constructed.
12.1 —опоставь антонимы:
|1. differ||2. disappearance||a) entire||b) collapse|
|3. incomplete||4. curved||c) precise||d) conform|
|5. stand||6. similar||e) safety||f) emergence|
|7. inexact||8. risk||g) linear||h) distinct|
12.2 —оставь выражение, логичные по смыслу:
|1. A technique||2. The advance||a) canТt be achieved.||b) checks the beam strain.|
|3. The goal||4. The building sway||c) is for three years.||d) was provided for.|
|5. The term||6. Serviceability||e) shows strange behaviour.||f) was developed.|
|7. A structural engineer||8. The structure||g) was taken into account.||h) was made in construction.|
12.3 «амени выделеные слова на:
a) carry out
1. A great amount of effort is spent on the correct application of formulas. 2. Research in the field progressed the general understanding of how steel beams act under single and combined loads. 3. They regularly perform urgent repairs of construction equipment at this plant. 4. This bridge can fall down under the weight of the train. 5. Design professionals and builders should work in an integrated process in order to specify and make use of materials in a manner that will reduce or eliminate waste. 6. Some cracks in beams can appear during construction. 7. During recent years an interesting change has been gradually brought about in the various methods of building construction employed in Russia. 8. The pipes and cables which penetrate the floor/ceiling system must incorporate an approved fire stopping system or must be enclosed in fire resisting shafts. 9. What is the legal temperature a building must keep in the winter in this area? 10. They developed some methods for testing structures permitted to move to and fro.
12.4 ѕрочитай и письменно переведи текст ENGINEERING FOR BUILDINGS:
Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineering is usually considered a specialty within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right.
Structural engineers are most commonly involved in the design of buildings and large nonbuilding structures but they can also be involved in the design of machineiy, medical equipment, vehicles or any item where structural integrity affects function or safety of the item. Structural engineers must ensure their designs satisfy given design criteria, predicated on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse without due warning) or serviceability and performance (e.g. building sway must not cause discomfort to the occupants).
Structural engineering theory is based upon physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different landscapes and materials. Structural engineering design utilises a relatively small number of basic structural elements to build up structural systems that can be very complex. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals.
Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It dates back to at least 2700 BC when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by Imhotep, the first engineer in history known by name. Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient civilizations because the structural form of a pyramid is inherently stable and can be almost infinitely scaled (as opposed to most other structural forms which cannot be linearly increased in size in proportion to increased loads).
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction were carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. No theory of structures existed, and the understanding of how structures stood up was extremely limited and based almost entirely on empirical evidence of Уwhat had worked beforeФ. Knowledge was retained by guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.
No record exists of the first calculations of the strength of structural members or the behaviour of structural material, but the profession of a structural engineer only really took shape with the industrial revolution and the re-invention of concrete. The physical sciences underlying structural engineering began to be understood in the Renaissance and have been developing ever since.
Structural engineering became a more defined profession with the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the emergence of the architecture world's tallest building. profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were often one and the same Ч the master builder. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th centuries the professional structural engineer came into existence.
The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding of both static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resist them. The complexity of modem structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified.
Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatory bodies around the world (for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers in the UK).
12.5 ќпредели верны ли данные высказывани€ или нет:
1. Structural engineering can only be studied on its own right.
2. Structural engineers are involved in the design of structures.
3. Structural engineering design uses a large number of basic structural elements.
4. Pyramids are regarded as the most common major structures because their forms are stable and scaled.
5. The theory of structures existed and was widely used throughout ancient and medieval history.
6. The profession of a structural engineer took shape in the Renaissance.
7. The architect and the structural engineer were different professions before the industrial revolution.
8. A structural engineer is considered to be fully qualified after completing a three-year course of study at college or university.
12.6 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. they can also be involved in the design of machinery