|the best (самый лучший лучше всего)
|worse (более плохой, хуже)
|the worst (самый плохой, худший)
|less (меньше, меньший)
|the least (самый I маленький)
|many, much (много)
|most (больше всего, самый большой)
|far (далекий) far (далеко)
|farther (более далекий) further (дальше)
|the farthest (самый далекий) the furthest (дальше всего)
—уществительное, определ€емое прилагательным в превосходной степени, всегда имеет определенный ар≠тикль the.
¬ предложени€х со степен€ми сравнени€ прилага≠тельных и наречий используютс€ следующие союзы и способы выражени€ сравнени€:
as... as такой же..., как
not so... as не такой..., как
not such (а)... as не такой..., как
twice as much as в два раза больше
three times as long as в три раза длиннее, чем
three times as high as в три раза выше, чем
ten times as much as в дес€ть раз больше
half as much/many вдвое меньше
half the size/the weight в два раза меньше по размеру/по весу
half the length в два раза меньше по длине
much better/worse намного лучше/хуже
much more/less гораздо больше/меньше
the... the чем..., тем
4.A ќбразуй сравнительную и пре≠восходную степень от следующих прилагательных и наречий:
1. Large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, elite, bad, strong, short, wide, good, safe, high, low, busy, well, little, many, far.
2. Industrial, hyperbolic, interdisciplinary, optimal, global, theoretical, traditional, cylindrical, natural, grandiose, alternately, originally, mechanical, gigantic.
4.B ѕереведи предложени€ на рус≠ский €зык:
1. This support is not so high as that one.
2. This material is not so innovative as that one.
3. The more you read, the more you know.
4. The deformation is not as important as stress.
5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do.
6. The deformation is as irreversible as the strength.
7. Materials are not so ductile as brittle.
8. Building engineering is innovative as well as developing.
9. Civil engineering course at the university is not so hard as enjoying.
10. The longer the night is, the shorter the day.
4.C ¬ыбери подход€щий вариант:
It was Ira`s birthday and she was very sad/sadly. She had been waiting hopeful/hopefully all morning for the postman to arrive. Sudden/Suddenly, the letterbox rattled gentle/gently and an envelope fell soft/softly onto the doormat. Picking it up, Ira noticed miserable/miserably that it was a bill. There were no cards, no presents and no pretty/prettily bouquets of flowers. Ira near/nearly burst into tears. Just then, there was a loud/loudly knock on the door. Opening the door slow/slowly, Ira saw all her friends holding brightly/bright wrapped gifts and shouting `Happy Birthday`. Ira immediate/immediately cheered up and greeted her friends warm/warmly.
4.D –аскрой скобки:
Nikita was walking (quick) down the street when he heard someone call his name (loud). He looked (nervous) behind him, but the street was (complete) empty. There was nobody there. (Sudden), he heard his name again. He turned to see his brother running towards him, smiling (cheerful). `Didn`t you hear me?` he laughed (happy). `Dima!` gasped Nikita. `You (near) frightened me to death! `
|JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Ќайди в правой колонке перевод анг≠лийских слов:
|1. to complete on schedule
|2. to install sewerage
|a. армировать кладку
|b. наносить штукатурку
|3. to build a partition
|4. to relate to construction
|c. руководить проектом
|d. застекл€ть окно
|5. to reinforce masonry
|6. to apply finishes
|e. отделывать поверхность
|f. устраивать изол€цию
|7. to apply a varnish
|8. to apply plaster
|g. закончить по графику
|h. нанести лаковое покрытие
|9. to install insulation
|10. to select an occupation
|i. выбирать профессию
|j. построить перегородку
|11. to supervise a project
|12. to glaze a window
|k. относитьс€ к строительству
|l. прокладывать канализацию
2. paper hanger
6. trade worker
9. mason carpenter
A. a person who manages
B. a worker skilled at applying plaster
C. a person who gives a job to others
D. a person skilled at making and repairing wooden objects
E. a person who cuts and fits glass
F. a person skilled at sticking wallpaper on the walls of a room
G. a person who builds or works with stone or brick
H. a person or firm that promises to do work at a fixed rate
I. a skilled worker
J. a person whose job is to fit and repair water pipes, bathroom apparatus, etc.
5.3 ѕисьменно переведи предложени€:
1. The wood has a beautiful finish. 2. The finished surface must have a uniform appearance. 3. They showed two good ways to insulate and finish a foundation wall. 4. Sensitive people with allergies or respiratory conditions often request certain finishing materials. 5. A finisher performs the last step in a manufacturing process. 6. After all the interior finishing is done install the carpet so that there is no damage done to it.
2. 1. This company is one of the very few places where you can place an order for lumber and related building materials on-line. 2. The house is in good order. 3. We order high quantities at our suppliers in order not to run out of material during a building phase. 4. You will have to obey my orders. 5. In order to give timber a new chance as a construction material, the different research development and marketing programs should aim at quick usage of the new techniques in timber engineering construction. 6. The machine is out of order. 7. He ordered me to stand up. 8. She checked all her figures in order that the report might be as accurate as possible.
3. 1. Protective helmets must be worn on site. 2. The company is trying to decide where to site the new factory. 3. She has a job on a building site. 4. The site for the new factory has not been decided yet. 5. Visit our website to check out the latest deals on building materials. 6. Students in this major prepare for careers managing and inspecting construction sites and buildings.
5.4 ѕрочитай, письменно переведи текст Occupations in the Construction Industry и ответь на вопросы:
1. What segments is the construction industry divided into?
2. What are the general contractorsТ responsibilities?
3. What is the difference between a general contractor and a specialty trade contractor?
4. What areas of the construction industry are construction trades workers employed in?
5. Who assists construction trades workers?
6. What are construction managersТ duties?
7. Who is responsible for completing a project on schedule?
The construction industry is divided into three major segments. The construction of buildings segment includes contractors called general contractors who build residential, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. Heavy and civil engineering construction contractors build sewers, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, and other projects related to infrastructure. Specialty trade contractors perform specialized activities related to all types of construction such as carpentry, painting, plumbing, and electrical work.
Construction is usually done or coordinated by general contractors who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. They take full responsibility for the complete job, except for specified portions of the work that may be omitted from the general contract. Although general contractors may do a portion of the work with their own crews, they often subcontract most of the work to heavy construction or specialty trade contractors.
Specialty trade contractors usually do the work of only one trade, such as painting, carpentry, or electrical work, or of two or more closely related trades, such as plumbing and heating.
Beyond fitting their work to that of the other trades, specialty trade contractors have no responsibility for the structure as a whole. They obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects, or property owners.
Construction trades workers are employed in a large variety of occupations that are involved in all aspects of the construction industry. Brick masons build and repair walls, floors, partitions and other structures with brick, panels, concrete block, stone, and other masonry materials. Carpenters construct, erect, install, or repair structures made of wood, such as partitions, putting in doors and windows, building stairs, and laying floors. Electricians install, connect, test, and maintain building electrical systems which can also include lighting, climate control, security, and communications. Glaziers are responsible for selecting, cutting, installing, replacing, and removing all types of glass. Insulation workers line and cover structures with insulating materials. Painters and paperhangers stain, varnish, and apply other finishes to buildings and other structures and apply decorative coverings to walls and ceilings. Plumbers install, maintain, and repair many different types of pipe systems. They may also install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Plasterers apply plaster, concrete, and similar materials to interior and exterior walls and ceilings. Roofers repair and install roofs made of tar or asphalt and gravel, rubber or thermoplastic, metal or shingles. Reinforcing iron and metal workers place and install iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or frameworks of buildings, bridges, and other structures. Lastly, construction labourers perform a wide range of physically demanding tasks at construction sites, such as excavation, waste removal, and demolition. Many construction trades workers perform their services with the assistance of helpers. These workers assist trades workers and perform duties requiring less skill.
First-line supervisors and managers of construction trades and extraction workers oversee trades workers and helpers and ensure that work is done well, safely, and according to the code. They plan the job and solve problems as they arise. Those with good organizational skills and exceptional supervisory ability may advance to construction management occupations, including project manager, field manager or superintendent. These workers are responsible for getting a project completed on schedule by working with the architectТs plans, making sure that materials are delivered on time, assigning work, overseeing craft supervisors, and ensuring that every phase of the project is completed properly and expeditiously. They also resolve problems and make sure that work proceeds without interruptions.
5.5 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. they often subcontract most of the work to heavy construction or specialty trade contractors. What does the pronoun they refer to?
2. They often obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects, or property owners. What does the pronoun they refer to?
3. These workers assist trade workers. What does the demonstrative adjective these refer to?
4. They also resolve problems and make sure that work proceeds without interruptions. What does the pronoun they refer to?
5. They may also install heating and cooling equipment. What does the pronoun they refer to?
5.6 ѕрочитай, переведи текст Construction Managers и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
Construction managers plan, direct, coordinate, and budget a wide variety of construction projects, including the building of all types of residential, commercial, and industrial structures, roads, bridges, wastewater treatment plants, and schools and hospitals. Construction managers may supervise an entire project or just part of one. They schedule and coordinate all design and construction processes, including the selection, hiring, and oversight of specialty trade contractors, such as carpentry, plumbing, or electrical, but they do not usually do any actual construction of the structure.
Construction managers are managers who oversee construction supervisors and personnel. They are often called project managers, constructors, construction superintendents, project engineers, construction supervisors, or general contractors.
These managers coordinate and supervise the construction process from the conceptual development stage through final construction, making sure that the project gets completed on time and within the budget. They often work with engineers, architects, and others who are involved in the process. Given the designs for buildings, roads, bridges,.or other projects, construction managers supervise the planning, scheduling, and implementation of those designs.
Large construction projects, such as an office building or an industrial complex, are often too complicated for one person to manage. Accordingly, these projects are divided into various segments: site preparation, including clearing and excavation of the land, installing sewage systems, and landscaping and road construction; building construction, including laying foundations and erecting the structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including protecting against fire and installing electrical, plumbing, and air-conditioning systems. Construction managers may be in charge of one or several of these activities.
Construction managers determine the best way to get materials to the site and the most cost-effective plan for completing the project. They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software.
Construction managers also manage the selection of general contractors and trade contractors to complete specific phases of the project which could include everything from structural metalworking and plumbing to painting, installing electricity and carpeting.
Construction managers determine the labour requirements of the project and, in some cases, supervisethe hiring and dismissal of workers. They oversee the performance of all trade contractors and are responsible for ensuring that all work is completed on schedule.
Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities through construction supervisors or other construction managers. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, for directing or monitoring in compliance with building and safety codes, other regulations, and requirements set by the project insurers. They also oversee the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment, workersТsafety and productivity, and the quality of the construction.
Working out of a main office or out of a field office at the construction site, construction managers monitor the overall construction project. Decisions regarding daily construction activities are generally made at the jobsite.
Managers might travel considerably when the construction site is not close to their main office or when they are responsible for activities at two or more sites. Management of overseas construction projects usually entails temporary residence in the country in which the project is being carried out.
5.7 Ќайди в тексте о:
1. design process coordination;
2. supervision of a project;
3. contractural arrangements;
4. personnelТs selection and overseeing;
5. construction site activities.
5.8 ѕрочитай и письменно переведи текст Construction Site Safety:
Construction is the most dangerous land based work sector in Europe (the fishing industry being more dangerous). In the European Union, the fatal accident rate is nearly 13 workers per 100,000 as against 5 per 100,000 for the all sector average.
In the U.S. there were 1,225 fatal occupational injuries in the construction sector in 2001 with an incidence rate of 13.3 per 100,000 employed workers. For the same year the construction industry experienced 481,400 nonfatal injuries and illnesses at a rate of 7.9 per 100 full-time workers in the industry. Construction has about 6% of U.S. workers, but 20% of the fatalities Ч the largest number of fatalities reported for any industry sector.
The problem is not that the hazards and risks are unknown, it is that they are very difficult to control in a constantly changing work environment.
The leading safety hazards on site are falls from height, motor vehicle crashes, electrocution, machines, and being struck by falling objects. Some of the main health hazards on site are asbestos, solvents, noise, and manual handling activities.
Many construction sites cannot completely exclude non-workers. Road construction sites must often allow traffic to pass through. This places non-workers at some degree of risk.
Road construction sites are blocked-off and traffic is redirected. The sites and vehicles are protected by signs and barricades. However, sometimes even these signs and barricades can be a hazard to vehicle traffic. For example, improperly designed barricades can cause cars that strike them to roll over or even be thrown into the air. Even a simple safety sign can penetrate the windshield or roof of a car if hit from certain angles.
Under European Union Law, there are European Union Directives in place to protect workers, notably Directive 89/391 (the Framework Directive) and Directive 92/57 (the Temporary and Mobile Sites Directive). This legislation is transposed into the Member States and places requirements on employers and others to assess and protect workersТ health and safety.
In the United States the Occupational Safety and Health Administration sets and enforces the standards concerning workplace safety and health.
5.9 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. Why is construction considered to be the most dangerous working area?
2. Why is it difficult to control work environment?
3. What are the main safety hazards on site?
4. Who is regarded as a non-worker?
5. What are safety signs and barricades urgently required at construction sites?
6. What regulations and organizations place requirements on employers to protect workersТ safety?
ѕредлоги места и движени€:
1.ѕредлог at употребл€етс€:
Ø когда подразумеваетс€ конкретное место нахождени€: The postman is at the door.
Ø где происходит событие: There were a lot of people at the party.
Ø в выражени€х: at school/university/college, at work, at home, at the top of, at the bottom of, at sea = on a voyage, at the station/airport, at the seaside, etc.: I live at 18 King Street (Ќо: in King Street)
Ø когда речь идет о чьем-либо доме или бизнесе: at JoanТs, at the doctorТs, at the newsagentТs.
2.ѕредлог in употребл€етс€:
Ø в выражени€х: in the middle, in the sea, in the sky, in bed, in hospital, in prison, in a newspaper/magazine/book, in a picture/photo, in a street, in the world, in the lesson, in the country, in oneТs hand, etc.
Ø с названи€ми городов, столиц, стран и континентов: in Stratford, in Milan, in Egypt, in Asia
NB: in Цвнутри, в самом здании, at Ц абстрактно, о действии: It was very hot in the cinema (в здании кинотеатра). My parents are at the cinema (смотр€т фильм).
3.ѕредлог on употребл€етс€ в выражени€х: on the left/right, on a platform/page/screen/island/ beach/coast, on a map, on a farm, on a menu, on the first/second/Е floor, on a chair (Ќо: in an armchair), on/at the corner of a street (Ќо: in the corner of a room, go/run/Е round a corner)
4. огда речь идет о путешестви€х разными видами транспорта употребл€етс€ предлог by: by car/by bus/by train/by taxi/by plane/by boat, но on foot. By не употребл€етс€, когда есть артикль, личное местоимение и с прит€жательным падежом: on the train, in your car, on the eight oТclock bus/in a taxi/on the plane/in RichardТs car.
Ø ѕредлог from Е to/till/until употребл€ютс€ дл€ выражени€ длительности: She works from 9 to/till/until 5 every day.
Ø ѕредлог in употребл€етс€ чтобы сказать сколько времени займет действие: He finished the test in half an hour. Our new flat will be ready in a month.
ѕредлоги времени не употребл€ютс€ с today, tomorrow, tonight & yesterday: IТll see you tomorrow; с this, last, next, every, all, some, each, one & any: He has a music lesson every Tuesday.
5.A ¬ыбери подход€щий вариант:
1. There is a nice picture of our vault on/at/in this magazine.
2. The mustiness is in/under/on the shell.
3. LetТs go shopping in/at/opposite Mira Street.
4. Read the note at/under/in the bottom of the page.
5. The Denisovs work at/in/on the second floor.
6. Tolya is in/near/behind bed at the moment. HeТs not feeling very well.
7. The broadcasting tower is at/opposite/on the office.
8. Our roofer loves sitting on/at/in his favourite armchair by the fire.
9. Sonya sits under/beside/in me at univesity.
10. There is a high-pitch vaulting at/under/near the bank.
11. Look at the stars between/in/at the sky.
12. My house is between/on/among the tower & the high rising building.
13. After the work, there was rubbish in/at/on the floor.
14. LetТs meet on/between/at the laboratory.
15. ThereТs a very interesting article about UFOs in/on/at the vkontakte today.
16. IТm going to a conference in/-/at the weekend.
17. We have a big garden among/behind/between our house.
18. IТm going to the builderТs at/on/- tomorrow morning.
19. Sit beside/in/under the fire. It will keep you warm.
20. I found a gold coin among/at/in some chairs at the auditorium.
21. Danil sits at/among/between Nastya & Zhenya at English periods.
22. Put the chicken at/behind/in the oven.
5.B «аполни пропуски:
1. УWhere are my keys?Ф УProbably _ your pocket.Ф
2. УI like to sit _ the window on planes.Ф УSo do me. I like to see clouds.Ф
3. УWhere shall I put the cups?Ф У _ the table, please.Ф
4. УWhere is the cat? I canТt see it.Ф УItТs _ the table.Ф
5. УWhere is your house?Ф УItТs _ the supermarket & the greengrocerТs.Ф
6. УWhereТs the newspaper?Ф УItТs _ the floor.Ф
7. УWhereТs the post office in this town?Ф УItТs _ Lenina Street.Ф
8. УWere you born _ England?Ф УNo, I was born _ Russia.Ф
9. УWhere does your dog sleep?Ф У _ the hall.Ф
10. УWhere shall I put this table?Ф У _ the sofa & the armchair.Ф
11. УWhere is Mr. Timofeev?Ф УHe has just gone _ his office.Ф
12. УWhy are you looking at the map?Ф УBecause I want to see if thereТs another way of getting to the village instead of going _ the forest.Ф
13. УWhatТs that noise?Ф УThereТs a plane flying _ the house.Ф
14. УWhere does this train go?Ф УIt goes _ Novosibirsk _ Surgut.Ф
15. УHow do I get to the SUSU from here?Ф УJust walk _ the corner & youТll see it.Ф
16. УWhere is the beam?Ф УIt rolled _ the hill & fell _ the river.Ф
17. УWhen did you see Vera?Ф УI saw her when I came _ the office this morning.Ф
18. УWhy are you wet?Ф УBecause I just ran _ the srairs.Ф
5.C ѕоставь прилагательные в скоб≠ках в нужную форму:
1. Varnish is (nesessary) than stain.
2. To be a labourer for me is (interesting) than to be a subcontractor.
3. Plumbers have completed their work on schedule but (fast) than carpenters have started.
4. It was (bad) mistake IТve ever made.
5. The concrete with ordinary reinforcement is (innovative), than the concrete with prestressed reinforcement.
6. It will be possible to become a supervisor (fast)? Than to become an employer.
7. All our finishing materials were (cheap), than partition.
8. This construction site is (wide) than that one.
9. To install a sewerage system is (difficult) than install a plumbing.
|A LIVING PLACE
6.1 —опоставь синонимы:
|9. semi-detached house
|i. impressive house
|j. impressive house
6.2 ѕодбери соответстви€:
|a. chemical additives
|b. an apartment in a tenement
|c. from the 10th century AD
|d. a tiled roof
|e. down an old block of flats
|f. in quantity and intensity
|g. fashionable with people
|h. off a ranch-style house
|i. in an apartment house
|j. a timber-framed house
6.3 ѕеревед на русский и английский:
1. The map shows the range of (застройки жилых кварталов) around Manhattan. 2. Technically, а (многоквартирный дом, в котором квартиры наход€тс€ в частном владении) is а collection of individual home units along with the land upon which they sit. 3. Large numbers of (дома р€довой застройки) were built in the suburbs of large Australian cities in the 1850s. 4. ( ро≠ме) buying and selling used trucks, the company is also a dealer for new construction equipment. 5. The decision was taken for political (а не) military reasons. 6. Although steel framing is (схо≠жий) traditional framing in the construction process, the construction materials are vastly different, and builders need to be trained to use them correctly. 7. Spacious and dignified apartments of the (район жилой застройки) are especially exquisite due to highly individual designer approach. 8. Look up and you will see our building, a tall building with а (остроконечна€ крыша). 9. (Ќесмотр€ на) being enthusiastic about having a green roof, we really had no idea how to construct one. 10. Cottage housing provides an option that preserves the privacy and personal space of а (отдельно сто€щий жилой дом) in a smaller and less costly unit.
6.4 ѕрочитай и письменно переведи текст Building Styles:
Houses and public buildings in Britain and the US have been built in a range of styles and materials. Old and new stand side by side. In Britain there are timber-framed houses, buildings of brick or stone, and modern concrete and glass structures. Many US architectural styles came originally from Europe.
In the US there is plenty of space, except in big cities, so many houses are large and have a lot of garden around them. Most are detached, but there are also duplexes. Ranch-style houses are built on one floor only. Mansions are very large houses where rich people live. Some types of houses are associated with certain parts of the country. New York City, for instance, is famous for its brownstone, tall, narrow buildings named after the material used to build them. In the Midwest there are many wooden frame houses with pointed roofs. The South has wooden houses built before the Civil War in the antebellum style. But all over the US houses are built in many different styles.
Many Americans prefer to live in the suburbs rather than in a city centre in order to have a pleasant environment and plenty of space. They often live on housing developments, areas where all the houses were built at the same time and are similar in style.
In cities many people rent an apartment in an apartment building. Apartments usually have in England no more than three bedrooms, and are often rented furnished. An apartment with only one room may be called a studio or a loft. A building in which the apartments are owned by the people who live in them is called a condominium or a co-op. Poor people may live in apartments in tenements in the downtown area of a city, in small, very basic houses or in mobile homes. Despite the name, many people keep their mobile home in a trailer park and never move it.
Many people in Britain live in the suburbs consisting of new housing estates, while others were originally villages that have become joined to the town as it has grown. Villages are considered to be pleasant places to live, as they are quieter and less polluted than towns and are closer to the countryside. They usually contain a range of houses, including old cottages and new houses and bungalows.
Most houses are built of brick with a tiled roof, though some are built of stone. The largest and most expensive type of house is a detached house, which is not joined to other houses and has a garden all round it. Detached houses have at least three bedrooms and one or two bathrooms upstairs, and one or more living rooms plus a separate dining room and kitchen downstairs.
Semi-detached houses, or semis, are extremely common. They are built in pairs with one house joined to the other along one side. These houses usually have two or three bedrooms. There is a separate garden at the front and the back for each house.
Terraced houses date from Victorian and Edwardian times and were built mainly for working-class people. Four or more houses are joined together in a row. Terraced houses were originally quite small. Most have now been extended and bathrooms added, and in some towns they have become fashionable with professional people.
Cottages are small, very old village houses. Some have thatched roofs. Many have been modernized inside but still keep the wooden beams and other features that are thought to give them character. Some people think of a country cottage as their dream home. Bungalows have one storey, and this makes them especially popular with older people. They are mostly found in villages or on housing estates.
High-rise blocks of flats, sometimes over 20 storeys high with several flats on each floor, were built in many towns in the mid 20th century. Many have since been pulled down because they needed a lot of repairs and because people did not like living in them.
6.5 ”станови верны ли данные высказывани€, исправь неверные:
1. There are only old buildings in Britain.
2. There are a lot of large houses in the United States.
3. Americans donТt like to live in city centres.
4. There are a lot of different types of houses in the US.
5. Villages are not pleasant places to live.
6. A detached house is the most prestigious type of house.
7. A semi-detached house is the most expensive type of house.
8. Only working people live in terraced houses.
9. Cottages are regarded as dream homes by some people.
10. Blocks of flats were built because they didnТt need any repair.
6.6 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. Old and new stand side by side. What do the adjectives old and new refer to?
2. They often live on housing developments. What does the pronoun they refer to?
3. others were originally villages that have become joined to the town as it has grown. What does the pronoun others refer to?
4. They usually contain a range of houses, including old cottages and new houses and bungalows. What does the pronoun they refer to?
5. some are built of stone. What does the pronoun some refer to?
6. this makes them especially popular with older people. What do the pronouns this and them refer to?
6.7 ѕрочитай и переведи текст Building Houses, расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
1. Once the foundations and floor are complete, the main part of the house can be built up. In timber-framed houses the main supporting joists are sometimes made of steel or reinforced concrete. Heavy timbers must be used for supporting the roof and stairs and for door and window frames; for the rest of the structure lighter timber is used. In brick-built houses the walls are built up in double layers and the wooden framework for doors and windows as well asthe wooden joists for the floors are incorporated as work goes on. As the house rises it is necessaiy to provide scaffolding and platforms for the workers to stand on. This is made of steel tubing with planks laid across, ladders to go up and down, and hoists to lift up the building materials.
2. When the outer shell is complete, work can begin inside the house. The walls are usually lined with plaster. This may be applied straight on to brick walls or it may come in the form of plasterboard, which is attached to the walls on strips of wood called battens. Later it will be painted or papered for decoration; wet plaster must be given a: few weeks to dry out before that can be done. Plastering must be carefully timed to fit in with the work of the plumbers and electricians.
3. The roof of the house may be flat or sloping. Rafters of wood are laid across, which are then covered with slates or tiles. In some places they are called shingles. They may be made of any material that is waterproof, including clay, concrete, metal, and asbestos. They are laid so that they overlap and let the water run off.
4. A timber-framed house must be covered with either timber, bricks, or some other covering to finish the walls. There will also probably be an insulating layer of, for instance, glass fibre, to keep the house warm and dry. This will be put in between the living space and the roof to prevent heat escaping upwards. Brick- built houses have insulation put in the cavity between the walls and below the roof.
5. In order to understand how a house is built we must start at the beginning. The first thing to do is to level the ground and make the foundations. These are usually made of concrete which is poured into trenches dug in the ground. They have to be strong enough to hold up the building, and so it is important to prevent them from cracking or shifting. While the foundations are being built, the main drains must be laid to connect up to the public sewers.
6. At the same time, carpenters will be working inside the house finishing the wooden floors, staircases, window frames and doors, as well as fitting cupboards. Last of all, the painters and decorators come in to paint the house inside and out.
7. A timber-framed building has concrete foundation walls on top of a footing of concrete, and then timber sills which are anchored to the concrete while it is still wet. In brick-built houses the courses of bricks start on top of the concrete foundations. The first courses of bricks must be built carefully, for the whole house will rest on them.
8. Plumbers lay the pipes for the water supply, heating system, and drainage. They also have to fixthe drainage pipes on the outside of the house, which will join up to the drains and sewers, and put in the bathroom and kitchen fittings to which the pipes are connected. Most of these pipes have to be hidden from view in the finished house and so some of them will be fixed so that they are behind the plaster after it has been applied, and some will be under the floorboards. Similarly, the electric wires and fittings will mostly be embedded in plaster or laid under the floors. Sometimes the wires are encased in plastic tubes which are laid around the edge of the floors and window frames. The plumber and electrician also work together in installing such things as central-heating boilers.
6.8 «акончи предложени€:
1. The foundations have to be strong enough
a) to prevent them from cracking.
b) to level the ground.
c) to support the building.
2. The house will rest on
a) a concrete foundation.
b) the first courses of bricks.
c) top of a footing of concrete.
3. Scaffolding and platforms are provided for the workers
a) to stand on.
b) to lift up the building materials.
c) to go up and down.
4. Slates are made of
c) any waterproof materials.
5. Drainage pipes are connected to
a) the bathroom and kitchen fittings.
b) the drains and sewers.
c) the floorboards.
6. The last thing to do in the house is
a) to install central heating boilers.
b) to finish the wooden floors, window frames and doors.
c) to paint the house.
6.9 ѕрочитай, заполни пропуски артикл€ми a/the и письменно переведи текст Houses and Homes:
Every country has its distinctive housing. Cross from England into Scotland or from France into Germany or Spain, and you know instantly that you are in another country. It is partly _ matter of architecture, partly _ matter of _ way people choose to domesticate their immediate surroundings.
_ English are distinctive in their aversion to flats and their devotion to rows of small brick houses. Travel from Western France across Europe to _ Urals and you will see cities surrounded by modem blocks of high-rise flats. _ details of architecture will vary, but all countries have found that _ obvious solution to cheap new housing to accommodate.
Families moving in from the countryside or demanding improved conditions within _ towns is to build blocks of flats. They stand in rows and clusters, not beautiful, not spacious, but convenient and efficient. _ problems are similar: noise, cramped public areas, unpredictable water supplies, broken lifts but they are homes for millions of people who prefer them to _ more primitive conditions they have left. In England, however, this is not so.
Of course some English people enjoy flat-life, but for _ vast majority of them, _ basic idea of home is _ brick house with rooms upstairs and downstairs. And already _ English have _ confusion of terms in translating to and from Russian. _ English use _ word house for _ dwelling intended for one family. They would never say of _ block of flats that it is _ house, and hence УDOMФ has no exact equivalent in English. They always distinguish _ flat from _ house, not because _ house is grander (it may be _ tiny section of _ row of dwellings) but because _ flat is still unusual, except in city centres where it is unusual to live anyway. _ word home is much more personal, much warmer: your home is _ place where you live which you have created Ч its furnishings but also its atmosphere, your sense of other people who live in it, your feelings about its past as well as its present. Something of _ Russian feeling about _ privacy of kitchens is found in _ English word home.
_ Russians have _ habit of describing anything built before about 1955 as УoldФ. In England _ house does not qualify as old unless it was built at least _ hundred years ago. _ English still have hundreds of thousands of really old houses, built between _ 14th and 18th centuries scattered throughout _ country. They are considered very desirable and are very expensive even if they are small. Many of them are strikingly beautiful. At _ other end of _ scale are bungalows, small brick houses of only one storey, built especially for _ elderly. Many older people move from _ house into _ bungalow.
6.10 ќтветь на вопросы:
1. How do you know that you are in another country?
2. What were the reasons to construct blocks of flats?
3. What problems do people face, living in blocks of flats?
4. What is the basic idea of home for the English?
5. How do the English distinguish a flat from a house?
6. What is the difference between the words house and home?
7. How does a house qualify as old in Russia and England?