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Water Resources of Our Motherland




6.The southern coast of Ukraine is bordered by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The Black Sea has a surface area of 423,000 sq km. There are only a few islands in it. Its depth is 2,000 m. In the northwest, however, the sea is only 30-60 m deep. The important ports of Odesa, Kherson, Mykolayiv and Sevastopol lie on the Black Sea. The animal life is limited. Among the best known fish are sturgeon, goby, mullet, plaice and such typically Black Sea fish as horse mackerel and scomber.

7.The Sea of Azov is much less picturesque. Syvash Bay with bitter and very salty waters forms part of the sea. There are wonderful sandy beaches on its northern coast and it is very rich in fish life. It is a small sea, and is the world's most shallow sea, its average depth being 5-7 m.

8.Rivers are the principle part of Ukraine's water resources. Ukraine has a wealth of rivers. More than a hundred of them are longer than 100 km. The largest rivers are the Dnieper, Dnister, Danube, Southern Buh, Siversky Donets and Tysa. Ukraine's rivers on the whole belong to the basins of the Black and Azov Seas. Only the Western Buh and some other rivers empty into the Baltic Sea.

9.Ukraine's rivers are predominantly flat. They flow slowly in wide valleys. Rivers flowing off the Carpathian and Crimean Mountains are narrow, shallow and fast. In some of the southern regions there are almost no rivers. Rivers and other water resources (reservoires, lakes, ponds) play an important role in water supply, and are used as sources of energy. Navigable rivers are important for transport.

10.The Dnieper River has its source in the Valdai Plateau in Smolensk region and flows into the Black Sea. It is 2,285 km long. In size it is Europe's third-largest river (after the Volga and Danube). The Dnieper's largest tributaries are the Prypiat and Desna.

11.Another large river is the Dnister, which flows along the border of Ukraine and Moldova having its source in the Carpathians and emptying into the Black Sea. It floods not only in spring, but also in summer after heavy rainfalls. Its largest tributaries are the Stry and Zbruch.

12.The Danube passes through Ukraine in its lower reaches. It is an important water route linking the country with many European countries. The largest of the Danube's tributaries are the Tysa and Prut.

13.There are over 3,000 lakes throughout Ukraine. They are located mostly in Polissia, the Black Sea lowlands and the Crimea. The largest freshwater lakes are Yalpuh (220 sq km) in the Danube flood plain and Svytiazke in Polissia (27 sq km).

14. Ukraine has insufficient water supplies. The scarcest water resources are in southeastern Ukraine in the area where industry is centered. There are no local sources of water supply in such large cities as Kharkiv, Lviv, and Kryvy Rih. Thus canals have been dug from reservoires on the Dnieper to provide water to the arid regions of the country.

The Agricultural Country

15.Ukraine has very favourable conditions for the development of agricultural production: fertile soils, temperately warm climate, a well-developed industry processing agricultural raw materials. All the principle areas of plant cultivation are: grain and crops, meadow culture, fruit and vegetable raising. Almost half the cropping area is occupied by cereals such as winter wheat, maize and legumes, rye, oats and barley. The principal grain crop, winter wheat, is sown mainly in the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones. Maize is grown mostly in Trans-carpathia and Steppe Zones. Buckwheat, millet, rice play an important role. Among the industrial crops such as sugar, beet, sunflower, flax the leading position is occupied by sugar beet. Close to 40 types of vegetable crop are grown in Ukraine: cabbage, tomato, cucumber, red beet, carrot, onion, garlic, etc. Melon-growing is practised mainly in the south. Potatoes occupy 6 % of soil under cultivation.

16.Animal husbandry is the second-largest component of agriculture. Like plant cultivation, livestock production is divided into branches. The most widespread branch is cattle breeding, pig raising is another important area. Sheep farming is also practised.

17.The poultry industry is spread through all the regions. Birds farmed include chicken, duck, goose, turkey. There are large mechanized poultry factories to produce eggs and meat.

18.Fish farming is growing in importance, with carp, being the most common fish. Trout, which is to be found in the mountain rivers, is of commercial interest too.

19.Bee-keeping is spread through all zones. It is extensively practised on private plots. Fur animals being farmed include the silver and blue fox, mink and nutria.

Science in Ukraine

 

Eminent names and scientific schools

20.In the twentieth century, a number of renowned scientific schools were established in Ukraine dealing with problems of geochemistry and the natural sciences (V. Vernadsky), mechanics (S. Tymoshenko), oriental studies (A. Krymsky), microbiology (D. Zabolotny), biology (O. Bohomolets), chemistry (L. Pysarchevsky), electrical welding and bridge-building (Ye. Paton), physics (M. Boholiubov), cybernetics Daniil Zabolotny (V. Glushkov), space engineering (M. Yanhel), etc. Ukrainian scientists and scholars can boast major achievements, such as the artificial nuclear reaction to split the lithium nucleus; production of heavy water; a procedure for automatically welding lank bodies; the Europe's first computer; new areas pioneered in metallurgy: electric metallurgy with electroslag, plasma-arc, and plasma electron-beam remelting, development of unique rockets and spacecraft, etc.

Ukraine's Scientific Potential

21.Science is a major factor allowing Ukraine to be ranked among the world's advanced countries in the twenty-first century. By the beginning of the year 2000, Ukraine's scientific potential of Ukraine comprised 1,506 scientific institutions and organizations. Of these, 289 were in the academic sector, 160 were institutions of higher learning, while 964 belonged to the industry, and 93 to the factory sector. 126,000 persons are directly engaged in research and engineering activities. These include 4,132 doctors and over 20,000 candidates of sciences. Six state academies are leaders in Ukrainian science: the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science, Academy of Medical Science, Academy of Jurisprudence, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, and the Academy of Arts. The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine is responsible for the governmental management of scientific and scholarly activities.

The Coming Future

22.Ukraine is proud to comply with world scientific standards in mathematics, mechanics, physics, computer science, materials science, and a number of other trends directly related to the manufacture of the high tech science-intensive products increasingly demanded by foreign scientific institutions and industrial firms. For instance, a unique pilot plant has been built, which simulates the effect of outer space on spacecraft. Germany and China have purchased this plant and the European Space Agency is using it for research purposes. Together with Pratt and Whitney, a US aerospace firm, the Institute of Electrical Welding is developing a procedure for producing new materials using the technique of high-speed electron-beam evaporation and condensation of matter in a vacuum. The Institute of Monocrystals, a research and technical concern, supplies scintillation crystals as well as sapphire implants and tools to research centres in the US, Japan and Switzerland for neurosurgical and ophthalmological applications. Researchers at the Institute for Cryobiology and Cryomedicine have arranged production of competitive biological preparations on request by many foreign firms.

23.During the years of independence, a basic advance has been made by Ukraine in the social sciences and humanities. This contributed much to the nation's rethinking of its centuries-long path in the historical and cultural development and today's position of Ukraine in the context of the international and European civilizing process. This is the fifteenth year that the Ukrainian scholars have been involved in studying the scientific, technological, economic, medical, and social aspects with the goal of mitigating the consequences of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster, turning the devastated Unit 4 into an ecologically sound system, and establishing an international test field within the affected area for investigating the impact of radiation on the environment.

24.Ukrainian science is making successful efforts to be integrated into the international scientific community. Each year dozens of monographs by Ukrainian scholars are published abroad. Many Ukrainian scientific journals are translated into foreign languages. Under the aegis of UNESCO, an international research and educational centre for information technologies and systems as well as international chairs of cryobiology and physiology have been set up in Ukraine. Established in 1993, the International Association of Academies of Sciences is playing an important role to stimulate integration processes among Academies of Sciences of CIS countries. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine headed by Academician Borys Paton, its world-renowned President, remains the stronghold of these research institutions.

Ukrainian Space Industry

25.Young independent Ukraine confidently became one of the world space states owing to its space research and production potential. In February 1992, National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU) was established to implement state space activities policy. Its control sphere includes about 30 production enterprises, research organizations and design offices. The enterprises of space industry gain great experience in development and production of modern launch vehicles, spacecraft, engines, control and telemeter system. New materials and technologies are being phased in, and some of them have no counterparts. Space goods and services export increased from year to year.

26.Currently, space industry restructuring is being prepared and implemented to assure further development of enterprises in market environment. The restructuring provides forming of favorable business and investment climate, advance in rates of science intensive production output, development of new competitive technics, increase the quality and efficiency of production. It is planned to corporatize and incorporate state-owned companies, possibilities for establishment of international investment fund are also considered.

27.So, Ukrainian space industry enters into new millennium introducing market innovation system, which is favorable for improving investment climate and attracting investors to mutual beneficial cooperation within joint commercial projects.

Ex. 3 Give the English equivalents to the words and words-combinations:

ü “≥сно працювати/тесно работать;

ü —удноплавна р≥чка/судоходна€ река;

ü наукова д≥€льн≥сть/научна€ де€тельность;

ü п≥д ег≥дою/под эгидой, при поддержке;

ü взаЇмовиг≥дна сп≥впрац€/взаимовыгодное сотрудничество;

ü площа поверхн≥/площадь поверхности;

ü залишатис€ оплотом/оставатьс€ оплотом;

ü озима пшениц€/озима€ пшеница;

ü р≥вн≥ продуктивност≥/уровни производительности;

ü орган≥зовувати виробництво/организовывать производство;

ü земл€, €ку оброблюють/земл€, наход€ща€с€ под возделыванием.

 

Ex.4 Find the synonyms in the text to the following words:

To flow into, influence, to be concerned with, due to, to buy, famous, dry, at present, attempt, application, to carry out.





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