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Translate into English in written form. ћузей √уггенхайма Ц самый необычный музей Ќью-…орка и одно из ведущих собраний современного искусства в мире

ћузей √уггенхайма Ц самый необычный музей Ќью-…орка и одно из ведущих собраний современного искусства в мире. ќснователь музе€ Ц меценат —оломон –оберт √уггенхайм.

ћузей √уггенхайма в Ќью-…орке ценен не только выставленными здесь произведени€ми искусства: здание музе€ само по себе неизменно вызывает восхищение ценителей искусства и архитекторов со всего мира.

јрхитектор ‘рэнк Ћлойд –айт (Frank Lloyd Wright) потратил на музей √уггенхайма более 15 лет своей жизни, подготовив при этом примерно 700 эскизов. ѕостроенное в 1959 году здание €вл€етс€ вершиной творчества –айта, который с успехом передал пластичность органических форм в архитектуре. —наружи здание напоминает перевернутый зиккурат (ступенчатую пирамиду вавилонского происхождени€), а внутри раковину. ¬ центральной части находитс€ хорошо освещенное пространство со стекл€нной ротондой наверху.

–айт предполагал, что экспозиции должны осматриватьс€ сверху вниз: посетитель поднимаетс€ на верхний этаж на лифте и постепенно спускаетс€ по центральному спиральному пандусу.  артины, вис€щие на наклонных стенах, при этом должны находитьс€ в том же положении, что и на мольберте художника. –уководство музе€ выполнило не все требовани€ –айта, и сейчас осмотр экспозиций происходит снизу вверх.

¬нутри, вдоль стен, ведет винтовой пандус, создава€ ощущение пространства, открытого со всех сторон. ¬ыставочные помещени€ начинаютс€ на самом верхнем этаже и спускаютс€ вниз. “аким образом, у посетител€, идущего вниз по пандусу, посто€нно мен€етс€ зрительна€ перспектива, и он на каждом шагу имеет возможность взгл€нуть на экспозицию с новой точки зрени€. ƒетали интерьера составл€ют продуманную симфонию из треугольников, овалов, кругов и квадратов. ‘ормы повтор€ют и перетекают одна в другую, создава€ фантастическое окружение.


Group work. Discuss the following in small groups.

a) Frank Lloyd Wright and his conception of Уorganic architectureФ.

b) Find some more examples of Organic Architecture.

c) Modern approaches to Organic Design.




WHAT we know about science


Exercise 1. Answer the following question.

1. Do you agree with the statement УScience is an inspiring process of discovery that helps satisfy the natural curiosityФ? Comment on.

2. How can scientists fight for the spread of pseudoscience? Why do people fall for pseudoscience?

3. What is the difference between science and technology?

Exercise 2. Study the following expressions and word combinations. Complete the sentences with these word-combinations and expressions in the correct form. Some combinations should be used more than once.

a) a pilot study,

b) applied science,

c) to carry out a procedure,

d) to carry out an experiment,

e) apparatus,

f) to employ a method,

g) to employ an approach,

h) research methodology.


1. A student Е described in this experiment to verify CharleТs Law.

2. One might think of Е as a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost.

3. Planning ahead ensures that Е is Е properly and that the results reflect the real world, in the best possible way.

4. A clear expression of quality objectives and testing parameters or criteria are made when a non-standard Е is Е.

5. Effective teaching Е was Е by high school science teachers.

6. The most important applications of Е lie in the formulation of the problem.

7. A person who receives an associate degree in Е will further his degree in a 4-year program in liberal arts and sciences.

8. The purpose of this research project was to describe how current Е operators are being trained.

9. We may Е a procedure or an experiment or a pilot study.

10. We use or, more formally, Е a method or a technique or Е or an instrument or a device.

11. You can employ any particular type of Е for this project.

12. Е is assembled and checked.




1. It can be said that science is a cumulative body of knowledge about the natural world, obtained by the application of a peculiar method practiced by the scientist. It is known that the word science itself is derived from the Latin УscireФ, to know, to have knowledge of, to experience. Fundamental and applied sciences are commonly distinguished, the former being concerned with fundamental laws of nature, the latter engaged in application of the knowledge obtained. Technology is the fruit of applied science, being the concrete practical expression of research done in the laboratory and applied to manufacturing commodities to meet human needs.

2. The word УscientistФ was introduced only in 1840 by a Cambridge professor of philosophy who wrote: УWe need a name for describing a cultivator of science in general. I should be inclined to call him a scientistФ. УThe cultivators of scienceФ before that time were known as Уnatural philosophersФ. They were curious, often eccentric, persons who poked inquiring fingers at nature. In the process of doing so they started a technique of inquiry which is now referred to as the Уscientific methodФ.

3. Briefly, the following steps can be distinguished in this method. First the thought comes that is initiated the inquiry. It is known, for example, that in 1896 the physicist Henri Becquerel, in his communication to the French Academy of Sciences, reported that he had discovered rays of an unknown nature emitted spontaneously by uranium salts. His discovery excited Marie Curie, and together with her husband Pierre Curie she tried to obtain more knowledge about the radiation. What was it exactly? Where did it come from?

4. Second comes the collecting of facts: the techniques of doing this will differ according to the problem which is to be solved. But it is based on the experiment in which anything may be used to gather the essential data Ц from a test-tube to an earth-satellite. It is known that the Curies encountered great difficulties in gathering their facts, as they investigated the mysterious uranium rays.

5. This leads to step three: organizing the facts and studying the relationships that emerge. It was already noted that the above rays were different from anything known. How to explain this? Did this radiation come from the atom itself? It might be expected that other materials also have the property of emitting radiation. Some investigations made by Mme Curie proved that this was so. The discovery was followed by further experiments with УactiveФ radioelements only.

6. Step four consists of stating a hypothesis or theory: that is, framing a general truth that has emerged, and that may be modified as new facts emerge. In July 1898, the Curies announced the probable presence in pitchblende ores of a new element possessing powerful radioactivity. This was the beginning of the discovery of radium.

7. Then the clearer statement of the theory follows. In December 1898, the Curies reported to the Academy of Sciences: УThe various reasons enumerated lead us to believe that the new radioactive substance contains a new element to which we propose to give the name of Radium. The new radioactive substance certainly contains a great amount of barium, and still its radioactivity is considerable. It can be suggested therefore that the radioactivity of radium must be enormousФ.

8. And the final step is the practical test of the theory, i.e. the prediction of new facts. This is essential, because from this flows the possibility of control by man of the forces of nature that are newly revealed.

9. Notes should be taken of how Marie Curie used deductive reasoning in order to proceed with her research, this kind of Уdetective workФ being basic to the methodology of science. It should be stressed further that she dealt with probability Ц and not with certainty Ц in her investigation. Also, although the Curies were doing the basic research work at great expense to themselves in hard physical toil, they knew that were part of an international group of people all concerned with their search for truth. Their reports were published and immediately examined by scientists all over the world. Any defects in their arguments would be pointed out to them immediately.

Task 1.

1. State the main idea of the 1st paragraph.

2. Identify the topic sentence of the 7th paragraph.

3. Find the sentence describing the final step in the development of hypothesis.

4. Translate paragraph 9 in writing.

Task 2. Give the Russian equivalents of:

a) Fundamental and applied sciences.

b) A cumulative body of knowledge.

c) A peculiar method practiced by the scientist.

d) The manufacturing commodities to meet human needs.

e) Something according to the problem which is to be solved.

f) To start a technique of inquiry.

g) The Academy of Sciences.

h) Notes should be taken.


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