афедра У≤ноземн≥ мовиФ
ћетодичн≥ вказ≥вки до розмовноњ теми Ућ≥й фахФ з розвитку
навичок профес≥йного сп≥лкуванн€ дл€ студент≥в 2 курсу спец≥альност≥ У–ухомий склад та спец≥альна зал≥знична техн≥ка (¬агони)Ф
ћетодичн≥ вказ≥вки розгл€нут≥ та рекомендован≥ до друку на зас≥данн≥ кафедри У≤ноземн≥ мовиФ 24.01.2005, протокол є6
”кладач≥: ст.викл. “окмакова Ћ.≤., викл. «агр≥йчук Ћ.ћ.
–ецензент: доцент ƒонець —.ћ.
Railway transport takes the leading place in the complex of the CIS member-states, providing the main volume of the freight traffic and the sufficient part of the passenger traffic. It has almost 80 % of freight turnover of all kinds of general usage traffic and more than 40% of passenger turnover.
It is known, that the rise of the efficiency and the quality of railway traffic depends on the number of requirements to the technique-economics features of a wagon Ц such as productivity, capital outlays, maintenance readiness and material capacity. The main reserve of transport expenditure decrease is introduction of modern technologies, revival of industrial production. It is necessary to mention, that the process of traffic volumes extension in Ukraine has already begun. The fact, that in 2003 445, 5 million tons of freight were transported in Ukraine and it is 13, 5 % more, than in 2002; freight turnover was increased by 16, 7%, particularly transit was increased by 14, 6 % states for this.
The analyses of work of car building and car repairing plants for the recent years shows, that revival of car building market has begun. Under the conditions of economy reformation of Ukraine and its gradual inclusion into the system of world economic contacts, railway transport of our country must solve important problems of adaptation to the work in the market conditions and meet the increasing demands to the quality and the efficiency of transport services. Nowadays we must create rolling stock that can be operated not only on Ukrainian railroads and railroads of the CIS but on the West- European routs.
The increase of the compatibility of railways is connected with the fact, that operation rolling stock park must be brought to the conformity with norms and rules of International Railway Union. It is necessary to solve the following tasks.
In freight car-building: to create cars of УEast-WestФ type, bogies with automatic change of gauge, cars for combined transportation; to extend terminal capacities and to develop technologies of container and contrailer transportations; to perfect universal cars constructions aiming at the reduction of tare weight and the increase of its strength; to create and to master refrigerator containers with nitrogen cooling system, tank-wagons the construction of which excludes the emission of hazardous pollutants into the atmosphere in alert conditions; to develop the other types of ecologically safe and reliable rolling stock, including Уoverhaul constructionsФ.
In passenger car-building: to create a new generation of passenger cars, diesel and electric trains with advanced comfort, safe for passengers and environment, reliable and economical in operation. The characteristic features of a new generation underground cars will be advanced comfort, high speed and more efficient tractive and braking systems. The realization of all these will facilitate the integration of Ukrainian railway transport into All-European transportation system.
Under the conditions of liberalization of transport services market railways must first of all meet the requirements of quality characteristics. The positions of railways depend upon the realization of these tasks.
Study the following words and word combinations:
|capital outlays||-||кап≥тальн≥ витрати|
|traffic volume||-||обс€г перевезень|
|to meet the demands||-||задовольнити вимогам|
|rolling stock||-||рухомий склад|
|operation rolling stock park||-||експлуатац≥йний парк рухомого складу|
|container and contrailer transportations||-||контейнерн≥ та контрейлерн≥ перевезенн€|
|tare weight||-||вага тари|
|nitrogen cooling system||-||азотна система охолодженн€|
|alert conditions||-||авар≥йна ситуац≥€|
|Уoverhaul constructionsФ||-||безремонтна конструкц≥€|
|emission of hazardous pollutants||-||викид шк≥дливих речовин|
|tractive and braking systems||-||т€гов≥ та гальмов≥ системи|
Answer the following questions:
1. What place does the railway transport play?
2. Has the process of traffic volumes extension in Ukraine begun?
3. How can you characterize the freight turnover in Ukraine?
4. What kind of rolling stock are we going to create?
5. What tasks are do we have to solve to increase the compatibility of railways?
a. in freight car building?
b. in passenger car building?
6. What must railways do first under the conditions of liberalization of transport services
Text 1 Cars and their classification.
Car is a non-self-propelled unit of rolling stock, intended for passengers and freight transportation.
Cars are operated in complicated and severe conditions. Long distances, high average daily runs, wide range of climatic conditions change and other peculiarities of their work require the creation of highly reliable constructions with great reserve of strength, reliability and durability of assembly units.
In spite of all the variety of types and constructions, each car consists of car body, frame, running gear, automatic coupling devices and brakes.
Car body is intended for passengers and freights allocation. Car body arrangement depends upon car type. It consists of side and flank walls, floor and roof (in roofed cars).
Frame takes forces, affecting a car. It consists of longitudinal and crosscut bars, toughly connected with each other and is the understructure of a car body and in many modern constructions represents united bearing structure. Automatic coupling devices, braking equipment and assembly units which join car body with running gears are located on the frame.
Running gears serve for smooth running of a car along the track with design speed and minimal resistance. They include wheel pairs, boxes and spring suspension. If a car has four or more wheel pairs, running gears are combined into independent assembly units-bogies. According to the quantity of wheel pairs, bogies are divided into two-, three-, four- and multyaxial.
Automatic coupling device is intended forcoupling cars with each other and with locomotive and also for transmission and softening of longitudinal forces effects directed from the locomotive towards the car and from one car towards the other. Modern automatic coupling devices consist of automatic coupling and absorbing device. They are mounted on each flank wall of a car.
Brake serves for deceleration of running and full stop of a car and keeping it at place. It consists of brake air distributor, ducting, compressed air tank and linkage. All the cars of the CIS are equipped with automatic brakes, and some part of them is additionally equipped with handbrakes; some passenger cars are equipped with electric pneumatic brakes. All the newly built cars on frictionless bearings are equipped with parking brake.
Cars are classified according to the number of axis (two-, four-, six-, eight- and multyaxial), size, gauge (broad-gauge, narrow-gauge), car body arrangement and material (all-metal, riveted, welded, wooden and others), operating regime (network-wide and industrial transport). The separate types of cars are classified according to the other peculiarities. So, passenger cars are divided into groups according to the installed air conditioning equipment, forced ventilation, electric or coal heating, this or that electric supply system, running gears and so on. Freight cars are distinguished according to the axle load, load per 1 meter of the track, carrying capacity, type of bogies, bearings and so on.
According to its purpose railway cars are divided into two main categories: passenger and freight.
Study the following words and combinations:
|high average daily runs||-||висок≥ середньодобов≥ проб≥ги|
|running gear||-||ходова частина|
|automatic coupling devices||-||пристроњ автоматичного зчепленн€|
|side and flank walls||-||боков≥ та торцев≥ ст≥ни|
|longitudinal and crosscut bars||-||подовжн≥ та поперечн≥ балки|
|bearing structure||-||несуча конструкц≥€|
|design speed||-||розрахункова швидк≥сть|
|wheel pairs||-||кол≥сн≥ пари|
|spring suspension||-||ресорне п≥дв≥шуванн€|
|absorbing device||-||поглинаючий пристр≥й|
|deceleration of running||-||упов≥льненн€ руху|
|brake air distributor||-||гальмовий пов≥тророзпод≥льник|
|compressed air tank||-||резервуар стисненого пов≥тр€|
|electric pneumatic brakes||-||електропневматичн≥ гальма|
|frictionless bearings||-||п≥дшипник коченн€|
|parking brake||-||сто€ночне гальмо|
|forced ventilation||-||примусова вентил€ц≥€|
|electric supply system||-||система електропостачанн€|
|axle load||-||навантаженн€ на в≥сь|
Exercise 1 Answer the following questions:
1. What is a car?
2. What determines the creation of highly reliable constructions with great reserve of strength, reliability and durability of assembly units?
3. What are the main parts of each car?
4. Characterize each of these parts.
5. What are located on the frame?
6. What do running gears include?
7. What do modern automatic coupling devices consist of?
8. What breaks are the cars of the CIS equipped with?