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Приложение 4. Опрощение морфологической структуры слова



always < OE ealne + weg ‘all the time, every time’; orig. denoting extent of space or distance

away < OE on weg

barn < OE ber(e)n ‘barley’ + ern ‘house’ – a house for barley

breakfast < OE break + fast – stop fasting

bridal < OE brydealu < bryd ‘marriage’ + ealu ‘ale’ – wedding feast

cupboard < ME cuppebord – a board for cups

dairy < ME deierie, dayerie < deie, daye ‘female servant, dairy-woman’, OE dage ‘female kneader of bread’ < dag ‘dough’ + -erie ‘-ery’ < Sc deigja

daisy < OE dages ‘day’ + eage ‘eye’ – day’s eye; so named from its covering the yellow disc in the evening and disclosing it in the morning

elbow < OE el(n) + boga – bending of the arm

England < OE Engla land; orig. country of the Angles, later of the Germanic inhabitants of Great Britain

forehead < OE for + heafod

Friday < OE frige + day – day of the goddess Frig (Sc Frigg), wife of Odin < Lat Veneris dies ‘day of the planet Venus’

gossip < OE god + sibbe – a person related to someone in god

han(d)sel < OE hand + sellan – delivery in the hand, and Sc giving of the hand, esp. in a promise or bargain

husband < OE husbonda < Sc husbondi ‘master of a house’

lady < OE hlafdige – bread kneader

lord < OE hlaford – bread keeper (i.e. one who feeds dependents)

maintain < L manutenere < manu ‘hand’ + tenere ‘hold’ – to hold by the hand

mermaid < OE mermayde – mere ‘sea, lake’ + magden ‘maid’

Monday < OE monandag < monan, gen. of mona ‘moon’ + dag ‘day’

mortify < L mors ‘death’ + facere ‘to make’

necklace < OE hnecca ‘neck’ + OFr laz, las ‘noose’

neighbour < OE neah ‘near’ + gebur ‘farmer’

nightingale < OE nihtegala < niht ‘night’ + galan ‘sing’

perhaps < per haps ‘by chance’ – haps – pl. of hap ‘chance’

Saturday < OE Satern(es)dag < L Saturni dies ‘day of the planet Saturn’

sheriff < OE scirgerefa < scir ‘shire’ + gerefa ‘numberer’ > shire-reeve (reeve – an officer)

typhoon < perh. of Chinese origin ‘a violent whirlwind’ < tai ‘big’ + fung ‘wind’

verdict < L veredictum ‘true saying’ < vere ‘truly’ + dictum ‘a thing said’

welcome < Sk vel + kominn

whether < OE hwather < hwo ‘who’ + ther ‘comparative suffix as in other’

window < Sc vindauga < vindr ‘wind’ + auga ‘eye’ – an eye for wind

world < OE weorold, wor(o)ld < wer ‘man’ (Icel verr, Goth wair) + oeldu ‘age’ – an age of a man, a course of man’s life

Приложение 5.

Продуктивные суффиксы современного английского языка

Исконные

суффикс значение   валентность стилистическая окраска
-dom noun-forming the state of being ─ freedom) the rank of a ─ (dukedom) an area ruled by a ─ (kingdom) collectivity (yuppiedom, officialdom) adj-stems noun-stems noun-stems   noun-stems, adj-stems neutral neutral neutral   informal  
-en verb-forming the idea of making into or making like (brighten) adj-stems neutral
-er noun-forming the agent of the action (dancer) the object of the action (lander) verb-stems   noun-stems neutral   neutral  
-ful adj-forming the idea of presence of some quality (powerful) noun-stems neutral
-hood noun-forming state, condition, quality, character (childhood) noun-stems neutral  
-ie/-y noun-forming the idea of diminutiveness (birdie) noun-stems evaluative
-ing noun-forming action, process (learning) verb-stems neutral
-ish adj-forming the idea of being similar to the idea of depreciatory meaning (childish, snobbish) adj-stems noun-stems neutral evaluative
-less adj-forming the idea of absence of some quality (senseless) noun-stems neutral
-like adj-forming the idea of being similar to, characteristic of (businesslike) noun-stems neutral
-ling noun-forming the idea of diminutiveness, depreciation (duckling) noun-stems evaluative
-ly adj-forming adv-forming the idea of having the manner of, the characteristic of (friendly, cleverly) every (weekly) noun-stems adj-stems neutral
-ness noun-forming state, condition, quality, degree (kindness, forgiveness) adj-stems verb-stems neutral
-ship noun-forming position, state, condition (friendship) noun-stems neutral
-ster noun-forming orig. the female agent (spinster) the idea of a person with often a depreciatory meaning (gangster, youngster)     noun-stems adj-stems     derogatory
-wise adv-forming the way, manner (clockwise, fashionwise) noun-stems neutral
-y adj-forming full of, characterized by, having (dirty, sleepy, wintry) noun-stems neutral

 

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