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Completeness of sentence structure

includes: <ellipsis>, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative> or <aposiopesis>

See: <types of connection>, <syntactical SDs>



a deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence

e.g. What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop? (W.Shakespeare)

e.g. In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (Dickens)

e.g. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all one side. (Dickens)


omission of certain members of the sentence

- is typical phenomenon in conversation

- always imitates the common features of colloquial language

e.g. So Justice Oberwaltzer – solemnly and didactically from his high seat to the jury. (Dreiser)

Source: <I.R.G.>

See: <inversion>, <completeness of sentence structure>


Apokoinu constructions

Apo-koinu constructions

Greek "with a common element"

the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective

- create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that;

- the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one;

Source: <V.A.K.>


the peculiar introducer or demonstrative construction whose attributive semi-clause has a finite verb predicate

- specific semi-complex sentence;

- formed much on the pattern of common subject overlapping;

- should be classed as a familiar colloquialism of occasional use; Source: (Blokh)

e.g. There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson)

e.g. He was the man killed that deer. (R. Warren)

e.g. There was no breeze came through the door. (E.Hemingway)

e.g. I bring him news will raise his dropping spirits. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. … or like the snow falls in the river. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. … when at her door arose a clatter might awake the dead. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. It was you insisted on coming, because you didn't like restaurants. (S. O'Casey)

e.g. He's the one makes the noise at night. (E. Hemingway)

e.g. And there's nothing more can be done. (A. Christie)

See: <ellipsis>, <completeness of sentence structure>





“a stopping short for rhetorical effect” (I.R.G.)

- used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker’s emotions prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.K.)

e.g. You just come home or I’ll ...

e.g. Good intentions, but ...

e.g. If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months’ time ...

e.g. What I had Seen of Patti didn’t really contradict Kitty’s view of her: a girl who means well, but. (D.Uhnak)

See: <completeness of sentence structure>

Syn.: break-in-the-narrative, aposiopesis


Types of connection

include: <polysyndeton>, <asyndeton>, <attachment>, <gap-sentence link>

See: <enumeration>, <completeness of sentence structure>



многосоюзие, полисиндетон

repeated use of conjunctions

- is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences

e.g. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed. (A.Tolkien)

e.g. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot. (Dickens)

Source: <V.A.K.>


the <SD> of connecting sentences, or phrases, or syntagms, or words by using connectives (mostly conjunctions and prepositions) before each component part

- makes an utterance more <rhythm>ical; so much so that prose may even Seem like verse

- has a disintegrating function (generally combines homogeneous elements of thought into one whole resembling enumeration);

- causes each member of a string of facts to stand out conspicuously unlike <enumeration>, which integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole

e.g. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. (Dickens)

Source: <I.R.G.>

Ant.: <asyndeton>

See: <attachment>, <enumeration>, <repetition>, <types of connection>




deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words

- helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (V.A.K.)

e.g. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (Dickens)

e.g. It \[a provincial city\] is full of dirty blank spaces, high black walls, a gas holder, a tall chimney, a main road that shakes with dust and lorries. (J.Osborne - Entertainer)


connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign, becomes a <SD>, if there is deliberate omission of the connective where it is generally expected to be according to the norms of the literary language (I.R.G.)

e.g. Soames turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing before an open grave, watching a coffin slowly lowered. (Galsworthy)

Ant.: <polysyndeton>

See: <attachment>, <types of connection>



separating the second part of the utterance from the first one by full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong (V.A.K.)

e.g. It wasn’t his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan’t beg. I shall simply starve. (S.Lewis)

e.g. Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent. (T.Capote)

e.g. He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few reservations. (D.Uhnak)

See: <detachment>, <types of connection>, <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>



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