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ߧѧݧڧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧



1. ѧ٧ߧѧڧ 1643—81 ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ էݧ ܧߧݧ ߧ ڧ٧ԧӧާ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧѧԧ ߧާѧ ܧڧߧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧ ߧ, ݧѧӧߧ ѧҧ, ܧߧѧܧ ٧ҧ֧ ҧܧӧԧ ѧ

2. ݧ٧ 1643-81, ӧҧѧ էܧ ߧ ֧էݧا֧ߧߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ էѧ ڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ;

3. ѧ٧ߧѧڧ էܧ ѧէڧѧݧߧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧, ֧ӧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ , ܧߧѧܧڧ֧ԧ ҧڧܧ ݧ ( 24643-81) ѧѧާ֧ ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ (2789 73*). ݧ٧ 2.308-79* 2,309 73* ܧѧ٧ѧ էܧ ѧѧާ֧ ֧ӧѧ ߧ ܧڧ٧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧.

էߧ էѧߧߧ ڧӧ֧է֧ߧ ѧҧݧڧ 11.1.

ѧҧݧڧ 11.1 - էߧ էѧߧߧ

ѧѧާ֧ ,֧էڧߧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ
ߧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ 8-
էݧ ,ާ
ڧݧ ٧ҧ֧,ާ
ڧڧߧ ӧ֧ߧ,ާ

ѧާѧڧӧѧ֧ާ ٧ҧѧ ܧݧ֧ էݧاߧ ҧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧ:

- ֧֧ߧ ߧ 8 ߧާѧ ܧڧߧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧ ߧ;

- ֧֧ߧ ߧ 8 ߧާѧ ݧѧӧߧ ѧҧ;

- ֧֧ߧ ߧ 8 ߧާѧ ܧߧѧܧ.

ڧ ا֧ߧڧ ٧ҧ֧ ٧ҧѧ ܧݧ֧ ֧֧էѧ, ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ڧ ҧܧӧ ٧ѧ٧ ,ѧߧӧݧ֧ «A».

ڧ էܧ ߧ ҧܧӧ ٧ѧ٧ «b» ӧ֧ӧ֧ ӧڧէ ا֧ߧڧ. ڧ ا֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ ܧݧѧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ا֧ӧԧ ѧߧڧ.

ҧ֧֧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧.

ާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ - ڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧, ܧ ߧاߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ڧ էݧ ݧߧԧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ܧߧݧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧. ֧ާ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ ڧӧ֧է֧ߧ ѧҧݧڧ 11.2.

ݧ ܧߧݧ ߧ ٧ҧѧ ܧݧ֧ 3-8- ֧֧ߧ֧ ߧ ڧާ֧ߧ 1-4- ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ, էݧ ܧ ܧѧاէ ԧ ߧ ݧ֧է֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ էӧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ.

ݧ ܧߧݧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ߧ ٧ҧѧ ܧݧ֧ 7—12- ֧֧ߧ֧ ߧ ڧާ֧ߧ 5,6, 7- ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ, էݧ ܧ ܧѧاէ ԧ ߧ էѧߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ էߧާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ.

ѧҧݧڧ 11.2 - ާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ ٧ҧѧ ܧݧ֧

    ާ ާ֧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ
էݧ ֧֧ߧ֧ ߧ
3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 7-12 5-12 5-12
ܧ ߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ, ߧާڧ֧ާ ܧާݧ֧ܧ
ܧڧߧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧ ߧ
ݧѧӧߧ ѧҧ    
ܧߧѧܧ ߧ ܧߧѧܧ ڧݧ ڧݧ
ҧܧӧԧ ٧ѧ٧ ,ڧݧ ڧݧ ݧ ,ڧݧ

ݧ 7- ֧֧ߧ ߧ 5- ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ ݧܧ էݧ d> 1600 ާ.

է ڧ ߧܧڧߧѧݧߧԧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާ էݧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ ֧֧ߧ ߧ 8- ӧҧڧѧ֧ 4- ܧާݧ֧ܧ ܧߧݧ.

ѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ էܧ ߧ ڧ-ާ֧֧ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ڧӧ֧է֧ߧ 1643—81. ֧٧ݧѧ ѧҧ ٧ѧڧӧѧ֧ ӧڧէ ѧҧݧڧ 11.3. ڧݧӧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ էܧ ܧߧݧڧ֧ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ 1643-81.

ާݧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ا ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ 2.403-75 ֧ܧާ֧ߧէ֧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ:

- էڧѧާ֧ ܧاߧ ӧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ, ֧է֧ݧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ѧէڧѧݧߧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧ (٧ѧէѧ֧ ֧ݧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧԧ էڧҧѧݧѧߧ ֧է֧ݧѧ 0,03-0,006 ާ ѧѧ ӧѧ֧ߧڧ 600 է 3000 /ާڧ);

- ڧڧߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ӧ֧ߧ , ߧ֧ҧէڧާ, ֧է֧ݧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ҧѧ٧ӧԧ (էݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ߧ ܧߧѧܧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧);

- ѧ٧ާ֧ ѧ ڧݧ ѧէڧ ٧ѧܧԧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ӧ ܧާܧѧ ڧݧڧߧէ ӧ . . ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧާ ѧߧէѧ ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ ާѧڧߧ֧ߧڧ.

ѧҧݧڧ11.3 - ߧѧ֧ߧڧ էܧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧

ѧڧާ֧ߧӧѧߧڧ ҧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ 1643-81 ڧݧ֧ߧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ էܧ, ާܧ   ѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ڧ֧ݧߧ ڧҧ
ڧ٧ާ֧ާԧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ էܧ ߧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧
ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ܧڧߧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧ ߧ
ѧէڧѧݧߧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧѧԧ ӧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ߧ ҧܧѧ է ߧ ѧէڧѧݧ-ߧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧѧԧ ӧ֧ߧ է ߧ ԧ֧-ߧ ҧܧѧ     ڧҧ էݧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ѧէڧѧݧߧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ
ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ݧѧӧߧ ѧҧ
ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧ ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧ ֧է֧ݧߧ ܧݧ-ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧ ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧է֧ݧߧ ܧݧ-ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧ     ѧԧާ֧ ѧԧ ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧާ֧ ߧӧߧԧ
ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧ ܧߧѧܧ
ԧ֧ߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧ է ߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ-ߧڧ ٧ҧ ڧҧ էݧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧ
ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧڧ ҧܧӧ ٧ѧ٧ ֧֧էѧ
էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧէߧԧ ܧߧ ߧѧڧާ֧ߧ֧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧէߧԧ ܧߧ է ߧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧէߧԧ ܧߧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧէߧԧ ܧߧ       ѧߧԧ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ ٧ҧާ֧

֧ڧѧݧߧ ѧҧݧڧ ѧӧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ ԧݧ ֧֧ا, ѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ اڧߧާ ݧڧߧڧާ ߧ ѧ, ڧӧէ:

- ֧ӧ ѧ - էѧߧߧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧;

- ӧ ӧ ѧ - ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧ ߧ, ӧҧѧߧߧ -ӧ֧ӧ֧ާ ѧߧէѧ;

- ֧֧ ѧ - ѧӧߧ էѧߧߧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ܧߧݧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧, ڧӧ֧է֧ߧߧ ӧ ӧ ѧ ѧҧݧڧ.

ڧѧާ֧ ܧاߧ ӧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ާݧ

է d-է֧ݧڧ֧ݧߧ էڧѧާ֧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧,

- ާէݧ ٧ҧ, = 5 ާ

z-ڧݧ ٧ҧ֧,z=44.

֧է֧ݧߧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ էڧѧާ֧ ܧاߧ ӧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ h10, .. ߧѧ֧ ݧѧ ǿ230h10. ѧէڧѧݧߧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ ֧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէѧڧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ 0,03 ާ.

֧է֧ݧߧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ڧڧߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ӧ֧ߧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ ѧܧا h10 (230h 10). ӧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ҧѧ٧ӧԧ էݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ߧ ܧߧѧܧ ٧ҧ֧ ֧֧էѧ ߧާѧݧߧ ѧҧ էڧߧڧܧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ ѧӧߧ էܧ ӧԧ ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ҧڧܧ ӧѧݧ ǿ85: =7 ާܧ (. ٧ѧէѧ 8).

֧֧ߧէڧܧݧߧ ӧ ӧ֧ߧ ܧݧ֧ ֧ԧ ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧէڧ 24643-81: էݧ 230h10 9 ֧֧ߧ ߧ R= 80 ާܧ.

ѧѧާ֧ ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ǿ75H7 ֧է֧ݧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ (. ٧ѧէѧ 9) ѧѧާ֧ R էܧ ѧ٧ާ֧ 75H7-T= 30 ާܧ:

ڧ֧ߧڧ ߧ էѧߧߧ ѧҧݧڧ 9.3, ڧߧڧާѧ֧ ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ǿ75H7 -R =0.8 ާܧ, ѧӧ ӧ ӧ֧ߧ ٧ҧ-ԧ ܧݧ֧ R = 1.6 ާܧ, ѧܧا ܧѧ ҧڧܧ ǿ85.

֧ӧѧ ڧݧ֧ ٧ҧ֧ ܧݧ֧ ݧ֧է֧ ӧҧڧѧ ߧѧ-ӧ֧ ֧֧ߧ ߧ, ڧݧ٧ էѧߧߧ ѧҧݧڧ 11.4 [3].

ѧҧݧڧ 11.4 - ֧ܧާ֧ߧէ֧ާ ѧѧާ֧ ֧ӧѧ ٧ҧ֧

֧֧ߧ ߧ ֧ ߧѧ֧٧ѧߧڧ ٧ҧ֧ ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧѧ ҧѧҧܧ ѧҧڧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ (ڧݧ֧) ٧ҧ֧ ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ٧ҧ
ҧܧѧܧ ߧ ߧ ѧߧܧѧ ݧڧӧѧߧڧ, ڧڧܧ, ֧ӧڧߧԧӧѧߧڧ      
ҧܧѧܧ ߧ ߧ ѧӧܧѧ ݧڧӧѧߧڧ, ֧ӧڧߧԧӧѧߧڧ
ҧܧѧܧ ڧݧ ާ֧ ܧڧ-ӧѧߧڧ ҧ ߧ ݧڧ. ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ڧݧ٧- է֧ݧߧ ֧ѧڧ
ҧ ާ֧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ է֧ݧߧ ֧ѧڧ ߧ ֧ҧ

 

ѧ ܧѧ ֧֧ߧ ߧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ 8-, ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ٧ҧ ڧߧڧާѧ֧ Ra=6,3 ާܧ. ֧ӧѧ ѧݧߧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ Rz= 20 ާܧ.

ڧߧܧ 11.1 ڧӧ֧է֧ ܧڧ ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ ҧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧ֧ էܧ, ܧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ާ ѧݧا֧ߧڧ ֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ֧.

 

 

ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧٧ݧѧ ٧ѧէѧѧ 1 11 ڧݧ٧ էݧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ѧҧ֧ԧ ֧֧ا ٧ҧѧԧ ܧݧ֧ -1,2.

 

 





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